Tectonics case studies

  • Created by: MrAltaf
  • Created on: 08-01-19 11:59
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  • Tectonics case studies
    • Earthquakes
      • Christchurch, New Zealand (Feb 2011) [HIC]
        • Effects
          • Water and sewage lines damaged --> contaminated water (SEE, ST, local)
          • Total damage: $40 billion (Ec)
          • 181 killed (S, ST)
          • 200 injured (S, ST)
          • Local schools damaged --> 45,000 students affected (ST, MT, Social)
          • Tourist visitors decreased by 75% in the following months (LT, global, future)
          • Severe liquefaction --> flooding (ST, Env)
          • 50% of central city's buildings were severely damaged (SEEP, businesses, residents, governments)
        • 6.3 magnitude
        • Responses
          • Colour coded damage system on buildings (ST)
          • Geonet funded a new monitoring and warning system (LT, regional)
          • Regular EQ drills (mitigation)
          • St Johns ambulance provided medical aid (ST)
          • $7 million of international aid & $900 million insurance pay out (LT, global)
          • Chemical toilets provided for 30,000 residents (Social, ST)
        • Destructive plate boundary
      • Haiti (Jan 2010) [LIC}
        • Effects
          • 28,000 buildings destroyed (Soc, Ec)
          • 4,000 schools destroyed (Soc, Ec, Dem)
          • 1 in 5 lost their jobs (Soc, Ec)
          • 200,000 deaths (S)
          • 3 million people affected (SPEED)
          • Haiti's largest industry, clothing, was one of the worst affected (Soc, Ec, globalisation)
          • 60% of  government buildings destroyed or damaged (Soc, Pol, Ec,
        • 7.0 magnitude
        • Epicentre 25km from capital city Port Au Prince (higher Risk)
        • Responses
          • Foreign countries and organisations sent aid (e.g. $330m from EU) (Globalisation, ST)
          • American Red Cross donated $7m within 24 hours (ST)
          • 40 trucks of food aid sent
          • Israeli defence provided support for children, elderly and pregnant women (Dem)
          • 400 orphans adopted by Americans (Soc, Dem, MT - LT)
          • Haiti did not have a disaster management plan (Inequality, mitigation, preparation)
          • 1m people still in temporary housing 1 year later (LT)
          • Water and sanitation provided for 1.7m (MT)
    • Tsunami
      • Indian Ocean/ Boxing Day tsunami (Dec 2004)
        • 9.0 magnitude
        • 24m tsunami
        • Effects
          • 230,000 deaths (S)
          • 2.3m homeless (S)
          • Reached as far as East coast of Africa (5,000 displaced, 150 dead in Somalia) (Large extent, global scale)
          • Thailand and Indonesia affected first whereas Southern Africa affected 11 hours later (fast vs slow onset)
          • Thailand tourist sector greatly affected (Soc, Ec, interdependence)
        • Responses
          • Mass graves used to prevent disease (ST)
          • $7bn in aid from NGOs and governments (ST, globalisation)
          • Temporary shelters and refugee camps established (ST)
          • Rubble and debris removed to allow rebuilding (MT)
          • Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System in place ($20m) (LT, future, risk, mitigation)
    • Volcanoes
      • Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland (2010) (HIC)
        • Effects
          • 11,000m ash plume (Env)
          • 150m ice cap melted (700 evacuated) (Soc, Env)
          • 20 farms destroyed by flooding or ash (Soc, Ec, local)
          • Major industry, fresh fish exports, badly affected with loss of income (Ec)
          • 95,000 flights cancelled - $2bn loss (Soc, Ec, regional, globalisation)
          • Channel Tunnel and Channel Ferries gained extra business (Ec, regional)
          • Europe lost $2.6bn of GDP due to eruption
          • Global drop in CO2 emissions (drop of 2.8 million tonnes)
        • VEI 4
        • Mid Atlantic Ridge, Constructive pb (N. Am & Eurasian)
        • Responses
          • Iceland was more prepared than usual as a smaller eruption occurred a month earlier (frequency)
          • Improved high tech equipment e.g. seismometers GPS, satellites used for future predictions (LT, future, risk, mitigation)
          • Emergency services were prepared for support (ST)
          • Evacuation of people affected by meltwater (ST)
      • Mt Nyiragongo, Congo (2002) (LIC)
        • VEI 2
        • East African Rift Valley
        • Effects
          • 40% Goma destroyed (4,500 buildings) and 14 villages destroyed (Soc, Ec)
          • Eruption produced ash, lava flows, toxic gases killing over 100 people
          • Goma airport and runway damaged by lava flows
          • Cholera outbreak due lack of clean drinking water
        • Responses
          • 200,000 fled to Rwanda (ST)
          • Aid agencies gave temporary shelters and sanitation kits (ST)
          • UN provided 260 tonnes of food for 700,000 people (ST)
      • Soufriere Hills, Montserrat (1997)
        • VEI 3
        • Destructive pb (Caribbean and N.AM plate)
        • Effects
          • Pyroclastic flow destroyed vegetation and damaged structures, 19 deaths (Soc, Ec, Env)
          • 4.5 million m3 affected in 20 mins (fast onset)
          • Plymouth and Bramble Airport destroyed by ejects and lahar (Soc, Ec)
          • Ash cloud reached 40,000 ft
          • Ash clouds, toxic gases, tephra, ash fall, lahar, pryoclastic flow
          • Unemployment rose from 7% to 50% as people evacuated
        • Responses
          • Seismic activity monitored prior to eruption (past, ST, risk, mitigation)
          • UK government sent £17m emergency aid (ST)
          • Evacuation to north of island, supported by US troops (ST)

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