TB3 Tutorial' Learning is more than SR theory

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  • Created on: 11-05-15 17:58
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  • TB3 Tutorial; Learning and memory is more than SR theory
    • Association formation is often central to a lot of psychological theorising
      • How does this type of learning occur? (What psychs. ask)
        • Associationists claim that it is through the strengthening of the associative link between A and B
          • Assoc. perespective states that leanring and memory depend on the formation of associative links each of which acts as a 'bond' to another entity
            • E.g/ rain (B) typically occurs when you can see rain clouds (A), A becomes become associated with B.
        • This tutorial focuses on the principle of contingency and learning through contingency
          • Association formation is often central to a lot of psychological theorising
            • How does this type of learning occur? (What psychs. ask)
              • Associationists claim that it is through the strengthening of the associative link between A and B
                • Assoc. perespective states that leanring and memory depend on the formation of associative links each of which acts as a 'bond' to another entity
                  • E.g/ rain (B) typically occurs when you can see rain clouds (A), A becomes become associated with B.
              • This tutorial focuses on the principle of contingency and learning through contingency
                • If A and B are contiguous, an associative link will be set up between them and learning of the pair AB occurs.
                  • READING; Classic elementaristic psychology
                    • With the A B example, this states that the 'elements' are As and Bs which are the essentials of an association -istic model of human knowledge
                    • There were 3 MAIN STUDIES in this tutorial
                      • Experiment 1; Probed recall task. Testing the claim that the critical factor in learning would be the association between the colour and shape
                        • If learning occurs through contiguity there should be no difference in performance across 6 conditions
                        • However if the relation of belonging together is important than there will be differences in performance as some conditions have not critically related associations
                          • Results showed that differences existed in conditions, hence, another factor other than contiguity is working here.
                            • The manner in which the colour and shape were related seems to be important...belongingness is critical.
                              • Supports the idea that the formation and pairing of psychological units is most important
                        • Results showed that differences existed in conditions, hence, another factor other than contiguity is working here.
                          • The manner in which the colour and shape were related seems to be important...belongingness is critical.
                            • Supports the idea that the formation and pairing of psychological units is most important
                      • Experiment 2; Forms (contours) and modes (contour textures).
                        • Constitutive (patterns that make up a test shape) are remembered better than patterns just paired together
                      • MAIN CONCLUSIONS
                        • Contingency only supports up to poor levels of memory
                          • The most effective way of producing coherence (and good memory!) is embedding A and B into the same psychological unit
                            • "Associations are the after-effects of organisation"
                      • Experiment 3; Same as experiment 2 but probing part-whole relations. Intentional learning and free recall design is used.
                        • Unitary patterns (patterns that 'interact' with each other remembered better than paired patterns.
                        • Also did the same thing with a nonsense language to test verbal representations, same results found, unitary better than paired conditions
                          • Unitary patterns (patterns that 'interact' with each other remembered better than paired patterns.
          • If A and B are contiguous, an associative link will be set up between them and learning of the pair AB occurs.
            • READING; Classic elementaristic psychology
              • With the A B example, this states that the 'elements' are As and Bs which are the essentials of an association -istic model of human knowledge
              • There were 3 MAIN STUDIES in this tutorial
                • Experiment 1; Probed recall task. Testing the claim that the critical factor in learning would be the association between the colour and shape
                  • If learning occurs through contiguity there should be no difference in performance across 6 conditions
                  • However if the relation of belonging together is important than there will be differences in performance as some conditions have not critically related associations
                  • Experiment 2; Forms (contours) and modes (contour textures).
                    • Constitutive (patterns that make up a test shape) are remembered better than patterns just paired together
                  • MAIN CONCLUSIONS
                    • Contingency only supports up to poor levels of memory
                      • The most effective way of producing coherence (and good memory!) is embedding A and B into the same psychological unit
                        • "Associations are the after-effects of organisation"
                  • Experiment 3; Same as experiment 2 but probing part-whole relations. Intentional learning and free recall design is used.
                    • Also did the same thing with a nonsense language to test verbal representations, same results found, unitary better than paired conditions

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