Stress in Everyday Life

  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 23-05-13 13:36
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  • Stress in Everyday Life
    • Stress Management
      • Psychological Methods
        • Stress Inoculation therapy (Meichenbaum)
          • We change the way that we think about stressors
            • This will lead to more positive attitudes
              • Strengths
                • Meichenbaum found SIT better than systematic de-sensitisation when dealing with phobias
                • Skills and confidence to cope with future stressors
                • Weaknesses
                  • Time consuming and requires motivation
                    • Very complex
                      • Could be equally as effectiveto talk positively and relax
          • Cognitive Bevavioural Therapy
          • Develop a form of coping before the problem arises. A person can innoculate before the problem arises
          • 1.Conceptualise, 2. Skill Acquisition, 3. Application
        • Hardiness Training
          • 'Hardy' refers to someone who is stress resistant
            • Focusing. Relieving stress encouters. Self improvement
            • Utah Valley State college offered to at risk students - it worked
          • Maddi and Kobasa
          • Must address personality aspects and learned habits which are difficult to modify
      • Biological Methods
        • Focuses on the emotions related to the situation, not the problem itself
        • Use of drugs
        • Benzodiazepines
          • Slow down the activity of the nervous system
          • GABA is a neurotransmitter, the bodies form of anxiety relief
            • GABA reacts with GABA receptors on the outside of recieving neurones
              • Opens a channel, increased flow of Cl- ion. Harder to stimulate neurone
              • Slows down activity of neurone, person feels more relaxed
          • Enhance action of GABA
        • Beta Blockers
          • Reduce the activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline which are a response to the SNS
          • Bind to beta receptors on cells of heart
          • Heart beats slower
        • Strengths
          • Effective and easy to use
          • Kahn et al followed 250 patients over 8 weeks. BZ's more effective than placebo.
          • BB's effective in reducing anxietyin sports where accuracy is important
        • Weaknesses
          • Side effects: BZ's - impaired memory
          • Addiction
          • Treat the symptons not the cause - withdrawal but the effect is still present
    • Life Changes
      • Holmes and Rahe
        • Believed that life changes are linked to stress and illness
          • Range of major life events seemed to precede physical illness. Changes were positive and negative events, change requires psychic energy (stressful) This affects health
        • Social  readjustment rating scale
          • Based on 43 life events from analysing 5000 patient records
          • 400 pp's used to establish the scale
      • Michael and Ben-Zur
        • 130 men and women who were recently divorced or widowed. Those who were divorced had high levels of life satisfaction and low levels of stress after divorce
      • Rahe et al
        • Used the SRRS with US military men. Asked to complete a questionnaire and illness score was taken
          • There was a + correlation between LCU and illness
            • LCU = life changing units
            • Concluded that it is change rather than negativity of change that is important. The amount of psychic energy needed to deal with life event
      • Events in someones life that require adjustment in aspects of someones life, source of stress
      • Evaluation
        • Correlation not cause
          • Individual differences-events have different effects on people
        • Daily hassles are are a more significant source of stress - DeLongis et al found no link between life events and health, but did between hassles
          • Quality of the event which causes damaged health. Uncontrolled,  unplanned and undesired being the worse
            • Reliability and validity - memory for life events may be poor
    • Daily Hassles
      • Daily hassles vs daily uplifts. The hassles adn uplifts scale measures response to daily situations
      • Daily hassles are the frustrating demands that charachterise everyday transactions with the environment
      • Bouteyre et al
        • Relationship between daily hassles and mental health of students during the initial transition from school to UNI
        • Psychology students completed hassles part of HSUP and were tested for symptoms of depression
          • Positive correlation between scores on the hassles scale and depressive symptoms
      • Gervais
        • Nurses kept diaries for a month recording daily hassles and uplifts and asked to rate their own performance
          • Daily hassles increase job strain and decrease performanc. Uplifts improve performance
    • Workplace Stress
      • Workload
        • Johansson looked at effects of repetitve jobs requiring attention, found higher illness rate and increased adrenaline
          • Type of job matters
      • Control
        • Marmot et a
          • Workload
            • Johansson looked at effects of repetitve jobs requiring attention, found higher illness rate and increased adrenaline
              • Type of job matters
          • Workload: no link between high workload and stress
        • Men and women with low job control more likely to develop heart disease, workload, degree of support were not associated.
          • Study of 7372 civil servants from London did a questionnaire on workload, control and support
            • Workload: no link between high workload and stress
            • Checked for signs of cardiovascular disease




Really detailed and lots of info. Thanks 




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