The Search for a settled government - Rump and Barebones

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  • The Search for a settled government - Rump and Barebones
    • Rump Parliament
      • Successes
        • Ireland
          • Sent Cromwell to Ireland to put end to civil war there
          • English control more firmly established - Catholic landowners estates confiscated
        • Scotland
          • Charles' son used Scotland springboard for the restoration of monarchy
            • Cromwell defeated Scots, attempt to gain throne thwarted
              • No further Royalist uprisings
        • War against Dutch
          • Passed 2 Navigation Acts (1650+51) - led to naval war but English victory
        • Gained support
          • Jan 1650 - all officers took Engagement (Oath of Allegiance) to Rump
            • 1649 - Rump used this to purge local committees of its enemies
        • Eased financial problems
          • Used confiscated land (from Royalists, Crown + Church) to pay soldiers + mount campaigns
          • Kept taxation levels high
          • April 1653 debt = > £1million
        • Radical groups
          • LEVELLERS mutiny 1649 quickly dealt with, 4 leaders put in Tower
          • RANTERS = anti-religious sect posing little threat but exaggerated by Rump
          • DIGGERS wanted communist society but very small threat
          • FIFTH MONARCHISTS believed end of world was at hand + wanted to abolish legal system - importance exaggerated
      • Failures
        • Reforms of legal system
          • Summer 1649 measures to relieve those imprisoned for debt defeated
          • 1650 Rump declared all legal cases be conducted in English
        • Deep division over religion
          • If they had imposed a religious settlement there may have been unrest
          • CofE effectively dismantled
          • Ratified tithes so that all must pay for ministers upkeep - not just those who attended services
        • Electoral reform
          • many wanted regular elections
          • 3 plans produced but none acted on
        • Self-perpetuating
          • Cromwell dissolved it as it had sat too long + failed to hold fresh elections
            • Also thought they would hold elections that may bring back Royalists
    • Barebones Parliament
      • Reasons for failure
        • Cromwell opted for Nominated Assembly
          • Some wanted  Executive Council of State dominated by army leaders, others wanted nominated assembly of saints
        • Seen as a body designed to draw up new constitution
          • once it met, decided to call itself a parliament
        • Radicals
          • Small in numbers but tended to dominate discussion
            • Wanted Godly reform
        • Reform sounded radical
          • Really they just threatened too many vested interests
        • First assembly to have representative from Ireland + Scotalns
      • What they wanted
        • Law put into pocketsize book, abolition of Court of Chancery + tithes + gentlemen's right to nominate men to church livings
        • Also law of Moses which represented attack on property to gentry
      • What they did
        • Sensible reforms
          • Act to settle Ireland
          • Act to link Scotland, England and Ireland
          • 1653 Civil Marriage Act to allow marriage outside of church
        • Radical reforms
          • Aug 1653, voted to abolish Court of Chancery
            • only saved by dissolution of Barebones
          • Aug 1653, voted in favour of Abolition of Tithes
            • Too much for moderate members
          • While Radicals attended prayer meeting, Moderates came to chamber + voted themselves out of existence

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