Experiments in Government and Society 1648–1660 PART ONE

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  • Experiments in Government and Society 1648–1660 PART ONE
    • Creation of the Commonwealth
      • Rump abolished the monarchy and the HoL in March. CoS (app. by Rump) had exec power but subordinate to Commons
    • Threats to the Commonwealth - Royalism
      • 2nd Ormond Agreement - after one w/ C when he was alive. Con Catholics and Prot Royalists into one movement loyal to the Stuarts.
      • Terms included – equal. for Catholics including freedom of worship, govern. changes and Ormond as head of recaptured army. In return, Confeds would send troops against P.
        • Ireland and Scotland
          • Ireland
            • Cromwell appointed to sort it out. WHY? Likeliest route of backdoor invasion, avenge IR in 1641, gain supp. for CW. Massacres at Wexford and Drogheda. Broke back of resistance and removed royalist threat there. Aimed to bring war to a rapid conc, resentment of C in Ireland.
      • Threats to the Commonwealth - Levellers -  two mutinies in the army, published the pamphlet 'England's New Chains Discovered.' Feb 1649. First mutiny small and suppressed, second over having to fight in Ireland.
        • Lilburne arrested. Reminded Rump that army had to be paid - used Dean and Chapter lands to pay, as they had belonged to the Crown.
    • Ireland and Scotland
      • Ireland
        • Cromwell appointed to sort it out. WHY? Likeliest route of backdoor invasion, avenge IR in 1641, gain supp. for CW. Massacres at Wexford and Drogheda. Broke back of resistance and removed royalist threat there. Aimed to bring war to a rapid conc, resentment of C in Ireland.
    • THE RUMP
      • STRENGTHS: Oath of Engagement 1650 - but failed to promote genuine loyalty. Act of Oblivion to reconcile former royalists but too many exceptions. Abolished legal privs of MPs, abol use of Latin in legal documents,  Victories in Scotland and Ireland.  Rump’s Navigation Act 1651 – boosted national morale and made Eng. a major Europ. player again. Bills for Wales, Ireland and North of England to assist in propagation of Gospel
        • SHUT DOWN bc didn't do enough, making moves towards elections
      • WEAKNESSES: A-D War 1652 stifled progress. Maintained high taxes- unpopular  Sectaries demanded more radical reforms  Committee for the P of the G in Wales attacked for being far too radical  Failure to provide pensions for war widows or wounded soldiers Opposition from lawyers Demob. of Army regiments. Personal grievances of army generals  No general election since 1641  High taxation, cost of Dutch War, cost of maintaining NMA
        • SHUT DOWN bc didn't do enough, making moves towards elections
        • Rump and Radicals
          • Toleration Act 1650 - meant people had to take part in 1 rel service per week - penalised those who didn't practice that. Tithes continued - radical groups paid to upkeep a Church they didn't follow. Blasphemy Act. Censorship introduced. PoG - controlled appointment of clergy
          • Quakers however survived as had spread rapidly in North. Baptists also survived as they had distanced themselves from the Levellers.
    • The Nominated Assembly
      • Made up on godly men appointed by Harrison and Cromwell. 'Barebones P' Godly preferred 'P of Saints'
      • Achieved? reform of marriage, started to abol tithes, attempted abolition of Court of Chancery, tougher measures against theives
        • Failed though - rads and mods, boycotts, made no decision of A-D War, moderates assembled and voted to abstain power to Cromwell
    • THE PROTECTORATE - DEC 1653
      • INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT: LP has exec power, CoS to handle finance and army, made up of reps from all parts of Kingdom, freedom of worship,
        • 4 Fundamentals 1654:1 gov by LP, 2 discontinuation of P against will of Prot or Instrument, lib of conscience, shared control of army
      • Cromwell's brief Personal Rule
        • GODLY - ensured all minister legit w/ Triers Ordinance, Ejectors Ord expelled insufficient ones, banned practices
          • LAW - easier access to C of Chancery
            • SECURITY - HCoJ for active royalists , dealing w/ petitions against Cromwell
        • Elects 1st Parl in Sep 1654
          • Failed bc - many disputed legality of constitution, so C allowed them to make suggestions to change IoG. C said they must take Oath about 4 Fs, said no and so were excluded. They began to rewrite Instrument - choose successor, ,ale dec about war and raise tax, threatened existence of army
      • AIMS - heal and settle, pol stability, godly reform

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