sport psychology

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  • Sport psychology (imagery in sport)
    • research of imagery
      • 200 published studies.
      • a mental process involving conscious control
      • can increase learning and performance of skills
      • motivation, injury rehab, arousal/ anxiety regulation.
    • Psychoneuro-muscular Theory (Jacobson, 1932)
      • muscle activity during imagery of a motor task.
        • subliminal
      • kin-aesthetic effect of imagery
    • Symbolic learning theory. (Dennis, 1985)
      • imagery strengthens 'mental blueprint' of movements needed to perform skills
        • strength tasks doesn't require as much cognitive activity.
    • PETTLEP (Holmes & collins, 2001)
      • PHYSICAL  - replication of skill.
      • ENVIRO-MENT - replicated to imagery.
      • TIMING - place should be replicated.
      • LEARNING - as skill level changes, image should change.
      • EMOTION - experience the same/
      • PER-SPECTIVE - what the person is seeing (could be 3rd person).
      • TASK - must be carried out with same feeling
    • COGNITIVE PSYCH.
      • Ahsens Triple-code model (1984)
        • 1) the model itself             2) somatic response      3) meaning of image
          • INTER-PRETATION? negative meanings need to be erradicated.
      • Bio-informational theory (lang, 1977)
        • 1) descriptive properties   2)response properties
      • Applied model of imagery (Martin et al, 1999)
        • type of imagery used  -> different images = different outcomes.
        • positive images produce positive performancesand vice versa
    • 5 TYPES OF IMAGERY (Pavio, 1985)
      • 1) Moti-vational specific
        • experience goal attained before achieved - medal, 1st place
      • 2) Moti-vational general- mastery
        • effective coping & mastery of challenging situations
      • 3) moti-vational general arousal
        • feelings of relaxation, anxiety. imaging coping strategy.
      • 4) cognitive specific
        • specific spot skills
      • 5) Cognitive general imagery
        • strategies related to competition-> quick changing positions.

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