Sociology - Theories on Education

  • Created by: Daenni92
  • Created on: 21-05-19 16:08
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  • Theories on Education
    • Functionalism
      • SETS; Social solidarity/control, Economic, Transmission of norms & values, Social Selection
      • Durkheim
        • Education has 2 functions
          • Social solidarity - ie. socialising pupils into a shared culture and sense of unity via things like history class
          • Teaching specialised skills needed in a complex industrial society.
      • Parsons
        • Bridges the gap between home life and wider society
          • Ascribed vs. achieved status (status given based on birth vs. based on work/actions)
          • Particularist vs Universalistic standards (standards specific to one's household vs. those of wider society)
      • Davis and Moore
        • Education is a form of role allocation. In meritocratic society inequality is inevitable and necessary as our skills are not equal. Those with the best skills/talents get the best jobs.
      • Hargreaves
        • Nowadays school emphasis individual success over the collective/community and thus hurts w/c dignity by leaving them behind, leading to anti-school subcultures)
    • Marxism
      • Althusser
        • Education is an Ideological State Apparatus that passes on ruling class ideas in order to get people to "side with" them. It fails the working class but legitimates it.
      • Paul Willis
        • Learning to Labour - unstructured interviews and observation of 12 w/c boys. They rejected school & its values, forming anti-school subcultures. Seeing themselves and manual work as superior to conformists and mental work. Were also racist and sexist.
      • Bowles and Gintis
        • Myth of meritocracy. School corresponds to the work place (m/c doing better than w/c, w/c behaviour similar to shop floor culture), allows for social reproduction.
      • Bourdieu
        • Cultural capital - m/c culture is more valued in education, (dominant class define what counts as "knowledge") disadvantaging w/c. Education translates m/c cultural capital into economic capital.
        • Bourgeois parlance vs. common parlance.
      • Boudon
        • cost of persistence. continuing w/ education means w/c students must leave their social circles and obtain debt.


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