Social Influence Mindmap

  • Created by: zahraaffs
  • Created on: 02-04-19 15:08
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  • Social Influence
    • Conformity
      • Types & Explanations
        • Internalization
        • Compliance
        • Informational Social Influence (ISI)
          • Asch (1995)
          • Lucas et al. (2006)
          • Perrin & Spencer (1980)
          • 'Two-process' approach is  oversimplified
            • Normative Social Influence (NSI)
              • Asch (1951)
              • McGhee & Teevan (1967)
        • Normative Social Influence (NSI)
          • Asch (1951)
          • McGhee & Teevan (1967)
        • Identification
      • Asch's Research
        • 123 American males completed 12 critical trials in groups of confederates. Results showed 75% conformed at least once, mainly due to NSI.
          • Perrin & Spencer (1980)
          • Artificial situations & tasks
          • Neto (1995)
          • Williams & Sogon (1984)
          • Deception
        • Group size, unanimity & task difficulty affect conformity levels.
      • Zimbardo's Research
        • Investigated whether brutality of prison guards was due to sadistic personalities or the environment.
          • Internal validity
        • 24 'emotionally stable' students were randomly assigned roles of guards or prisoners.
          • Banuazizi & Mohavedi (1975)
        • Deindividuation
          • Fromm (1973)
        • The study was stopped after 6 days instead of the planned 14 days as 'prisoners' began to experience anxiety/depression & the more guards identified with their roles, the more brutal & aggressive their behaviour became.
          • Reicher & Haslam (2006)
          • Tajfel's (1981) Social Identity Theory (SIT)
          • Ethical issues
    • Obedience
      • Milgram's Research
        • 40 male participants aged 20-50 played the role of a teacher & shocked the confederate whenever they gave a wrong answer.
          • Orne & Holland (1968)
          • Sheridan & King (1972)
        • The researcher used prods such as 'It is absolutely essential that you continue.' if the participant felt hesitant to shock the confederate.
        • 65% of participants continued all the way to 450 volts.
          • Hofling et al. (1966)
          • Social Identity Theory (SIT) is an alternative explanation.
          • Haslam & Reicher (2012)
        • Participants were debriefed. A follow-up questionnaire found 84% felt glad they participated & 74% felt they learnt something.
          • Baumrind (1964)
      • Situational Variables
        • Proximity decreased obedience levels significantly.
          • Miranda et al. (1981)
            • Location affected obedience levels.
              • Smith & Bond (1998)
                • Proximity decreased obedience levels significantly.
                  • Miranda et al. (1981)
                    • Location affected obedience levels.
                      • Smith & Bond (1998)
                        • Uniform was shown to act as a strong visual authority symbol & a cue to behave in an obedient manner.
                          • Bickman (1974)
                          • Orne & Holland (1968)
                      • Control of variables
                        • Uniform was shown to act as a strong visual authority symbol & a cue to behave in an obedient manner.
                          • Bickman (1974)
                          • Orne & Holland (1968)
                  • Conclusions of study provide an 'obedience alibi'. e.g. Holocaust.
                • Control of variables
              • Conclusions of study provide an 'obedience alibi'. e.g. Holocaust.
            • Social-Psychological Factors
              • Agentic state
                • Blass & Schmidt (2001)
              • Autonomous state
              • Agentic shift
                • Hofling et al. (1966)
                • Mandel (1998)
              • Binding factors
              • We obey people at the top of the hierarchy
                • Kilham & Mann (1974)
                • Kelman & Hamilton (1989)
              • Authorities have legitimacy through society's agreement
              • We hand over control of our behaviour to authority figures due to trust & through upbringing.
                • Mantell (1971)
              • Charismatic leaders use their legitimate powers for destructive purposes.
            • Dispositional Factors
              • Adorno et al. (1950) wanted to understand the anti-Semitism of the Holocaust.
              • Authoritarian personality includes extreme respect for authority & contempt for 'inferiors'. This originates in childhood due to overly strict parenting. Hostility towards parents is displaced onto those who are socially inferior.
                • Elms & Milgram (1966)
                • Correlation doesn't mean causation
                • Social Identity Theory (SIT) is an alternative explanation.
              • 2000 middle-class white Americans completed the F-scale and those who scored high identified with 'strong' people & were contemptuous of the 'weak'.
                • Christie & Jahoda (1954)
                • Greenstein (1969)
          • Influence
            • Resistance to Social Influence
              • Conformity & obedience are reduced by a dissenting peer (social support). This effect is temporary.
                • Allen & Levine (1971)
                • Gamson et al. (1982)
              • Rotter 's LOC (1966) proposed  internals place control with themselves, whereas externals place control outside themselves. There is a continuum. Internals are found to show greater resistance to social influence.
                • Holland (1967)
                • Twenge et al. (2004)
                • Rotter (1982)
            • Minority Influence
              • A minority changes the opinions of others through internalization.
                • Martin et al. (2003)
                • Artificial tasks
                • Moscovici's variations
                • Limited real-life application
              • Consistency
              • Commitment
              • Flexibility
              • Snowball effect
              • Moscovici et al.'s (1969) blue-green slide study found consistent minority group had a greater effect on other people than an inconsistent opinion.
                • Wood et al. (1994)
            • Social influence & change
              • 1) Drawing attention through social proof.
                • Nolan et al. (2008)
                • Bashir et al. (2013)
                • Artificial tasks
              • 2) Consistency
              • 3) Deeper processing
                • Mackie (1987)
              • 4) Augmentation principle
              • 5) Snowball effect
                • Nemeth (1986)
            • 6) Social cryptomnesia

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