Social Influence mindmap. No evaluation

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  • Social Influence
    • Types of conformity
      • Compliance= superficial, conforming to gain approval, short time.
      • Identification=an attitude is adopted to be part of a group
      • Internalisation= Deep and permanent change.
    • Explainations for conformity
      • Normative Social Influence= conform to fir In from fear of rejection, related to compliance, need to be observed.
      • Informational Social Influence= desire to be right and the situation is often ambiguous, a crisis or experts are involved.
    • Variables affecting conformity
      • Group size= With 1 or 2 as the majority conforming won’t happen. 3+ it does.
      • Unanimity of the majority= with one dissenter giving the correct answer is 5.5%. Giving incorrect answer is 9%.
      • Difficulty of the task= if the correct answer is made less obvious there is more conformity. High self-efficacy participants were still more independent when the task was harder than those with low.
    • Conformity to social roles (Zimbardo)
      • Procedure= 24 male student volunteers randomly allocated to prisoner or guard. Were given no instructions and their behaviour was assessed. Prisoners were referred to by numbers. Meant to last 2 weeks, lasted 4 days.
      • Findings=Guards became sadistic and abusive to the prisoners and took on their roles. Prisoners conformed to their roles and lost their identity.
    • Explainations for obedience=
      • Legitimate of Authority= Person must perceive an individual in a position of social control. People accept definitions of the situation by legitimate authority.
      • Agentic state=Person acts as an agent to carry out someone else’s wishes. A binding factor to continue is social etiquette as you do not want to seem rude so you carry on.
    • Situational variable affecting obedience=
      • Proximity=When the teacher and learner were in the same room 40%. Forced to put learner’s hand on shock plate 30%.
      • Uniform= When the experimenter was taken over by ordianry person in everyday clothes not lab coat 20%.
      • Location= When study moved from Yale Uni to Rundown Office 48%. Less professional.
      • Presence of allies= When stooges refused to continue 10% continued.
    • Milgram study
      • Procedure=40 volunteers participants and real participant was always teacher. Asked to shock learner if they gave an incorrect answer.
      • Findings= 65% went to 450V. 100% went to 300V.
    • The Authoritarian Personality=
      • A distinct personality that has strict adherence to conventional values and beliefs.
    • Resistance to social Influence=
      • Social support= Presence of social support enables to not conform. Breaks unanimity.
      • Locus of Control= Internal-more interdependence and believe they cause their consequence.External-passive behaviour and accept influence from others.
    • Minority Influence
      • Consistency=more influential as it allows re evaluation. Commitment=suggests certainty and confidence. Flexibility=rather than rigid arguments.
    • Social Influence processes in social change
      • Social change through minority= 1-Drawing attention to issue. 2-Cognitive conflict. 3-Cosistentenc.4-Augmentationprinciple. 5- Snowball effect.
      • Social change through majority= expressing a view as what the majority do.
    • Moscovici study
      • Procedure=4 naive participants and 2 stooges. Shown blue slides. Consistent trials stooges answered green 100% the time. Inconsistent trial stooges answered green 66% the time.
      • Findings= participants who were in consistent answered green 8%. Inconsistent answered green 0.05%.
    • Elms and Milgram study
      • Procedure=20 obedient and 20 defiant participants from original milgram study. Completed F scale and asked questions about relationships in childhood.
      • Findings=Highlevels of authoritarian personality for obedient participants. Obedient had bad relationships with father in childhood.


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