All of Social Influence

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  • Social Influence
    • Conformity
      • Types of conformity
        • Compliance
          • Normative social influence
            • A form of influence which makes people pretend to like something to fit in
        • Identification
          • Conformity to social roles
            • The behaviours that a person is expected to have due to their job or social status
        • Internalisation
          • Information social influence
            • A person accepts someones views on the world and look at the world their way.
      • Research into Conformity
        • ASCH
          • Set an ambiguous tast
          • There was 1 participant and 7 confederates 123 males used
          • There were shown a group of lines and told they had to match the right ones up. It was extremely obvious
          • Confederates gave the wrong answer most of the time.
          • 33% conforming answers
          • EVALUATIONnot eco valid and low pop validity
        • JENNESS
          • Beans in a jar study
          • People changed their answers to conform when in a group
          • Example of informative social influence
          • EVALUATION low pop validity and low eco validity
        • ZIMBARDO
          • Standford prison experiment
          • 24 men 12 guards and 12 prisoners with Zimbardo as the prison warden
          • The prisoners were deindivi-dualised
          • Guards had sunglasses, a uniform and batons
          • Was supposted to last 2 weeks but was only 6 days in the end
          • Participants were under a lot of stress and many asked to withdraw
          • EVALUATION highly unethical no informed consent (participants were arrested) participants suffered from physical, emotional and mental harm Ended the study early and it was all male so not generalizable
    • Obedience
      • A direct order which is given by someone who has legit authority
        • Examples of those with legit authourity
          • Teachers
          • Parents
          • Police
          • If someone has legit authority they are able to punish for disobeying
      • MLGRAM
        • 40 male American volunteers
          • Paid $4.50
          • Went to Yale
        • PPs had to draw a slip of paper to see if they would be the teacher or the learner- it was rigged so PP was always the teacher
        • Teacher read out word pairs and the confederate had to match them
        • If they gave the wrong answer or no answer the confederate would receive an 'electric shock'
        • The electricity went up to 450 volts.  On 450 there was an XXX sign and a severe shock sign
        • At 300, the fed banged on wall and asked to stop, at 315 there was no sound
        • Milgram created 4 prods which went from "Please continue" to "You must continue"
        • 65% went up to450 volts, 100% went up to 300 volts
        • EVALUATION not protected from harm, not given informed consent, could withdraw but was very difficult to do so, low internal validity, low pop validity, low eco validity, low historical validity
          • Low population validity was disproved, rates of obedience changed but they still obeyed.  Australia had low obedience rates
          • Done in 60s when people may have been told to obey, now people are encouraged to think independantly
          • Hofling disproved eco validity.  Got docs to call nurses and ask them to administer higher amounts of a drug they weren't aware of.
      • Variations of Milgram
        • Orders given over the phone, obedience dropped
        • Participant was in front of the confederate, obedience dropped
        • Experiment done in a rundown office block, obedience dropped
        • Power of the uniform, if research has the white coat, they are more likely to obey
      • Explanations of Obedience
        • Legitimate authority
        • Agentic State
        • Authoritarian personality
    • Resistance
      • Locus of control
      • Social support
    • Minority Influence

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