Soc- Prejudice

  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 22-12-21 12:00
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  • Prejudice
    • Unconscious bias
      • Unconscious attributions of attributes to categories
      • Biases are influenced are by culture (Devine 1989)
      • Can explain discriminatory impact on society (Greenwald et al 2015)
      • Measured through the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
    • Stereotypes vs prejudice
      • Stereotypes are a result of social heuristics and they provide shortcuts which enable us to quickly categorise groups
        • Prejudice is the affective element of this process- it is motivated by cognitive style (Allport 1954)
          • eg Fiske's Stereotype Content model- stereotype of women being nurturing and warm means they face prejudice of being incompetent
    • Some types: based on gender identity, sexualoty, race & ethnicity or age
    • Terms
      • Ingroup: group you belong to
      • Outgroup: group you do not belong to
      • Intergroup bias: preference for an ingroup over an outgroup
      • Prejudice: negative attitude towards members of specific social outgroups
        • Prejudice- affective eg preferring to hire men, stereotypes- cognitive
    • Social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner)
      • Individuals strive for a +ive social identity> make favourable comparisons with outgroups> ingroups must be perceived as +ively different from relevant outgroups> we are motivated to maximise the +ive difference between ingroup and outgroup
      • Humans have a need to belong (Baumeister & Liery 1995)
    • Infrahumanisation
      • The view that groups are essentially or fundamentally different eg my group is more human than the outgroup
        • We make positive distinctiveness  (Turner et al 1987) eg my ingroup is great, my outgroup is bad
    • Dehumanisation
      • Denial of humanness, most extreme form of inhumanisation
      • Paladino et al (2002)- ingroup names more strongly associated with uniquely human emotions than outgroup names, linked to objectification
    • Individual differences
      • Authoritarian personality (Adorno 1950)- absolute obedience/submission to an authority leading to the acceptance of oppression of subordinates, measured by F scale (fascist), promoted by strict parents
      • Need for closure (Roets & Van Hiel 2011)- desire for an answer on a given topic (Webster & Kruglanski 1994)
      • Social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratts 2001)- some groups have higher power and status some have lower, discrimination and prejudice are thus legitimised by hierarchies
    • 3 Intergroup theories of prejudice
      • Realistic group conflict theory
        • Prejudice is situational (Sherif 1966), intergroup conflict develops due to competition for scarce resources , including power and prestige (LeVine & Campbell 1972)
          • Conflict fuelled by prejudice is an adaptive response to lack of resources
          • Sherif & Sherif (1953) Robbers cave studies- boys summer camp, 2 groups, 3 stages: group formation, intergroup competition,  conflict reduction
            • If there is no obvious competition threat can include resources like safety, economy, well being, politics (Tajfel & Turner 1980)
      • Minimal groups paradigm (Tajfel et al
        • ps allocated to 2 groups based on painting preferences, asked to allocate points (money) to unknown ingroup and outgroup members with no individual gains, more likely to give to ingroup and take from outgroup
          • Competition despite meaningless categories and no interaction
      • Social identity theory
    • Reducing prejudice
      • Intergroup contact- bringing together members of different groups should reduce prejudice  (Allport 1954)
        • Cooperation, common goals, equal status, institutional support
      • Mere exposure- knowing ingroup members who have outgroup friends can reduce outgroup reduce
        • Wright et al (1997)- extended contact
          • based on Robbers cave experiment, 1 member of each group worked together and discussed experience with other ingroup members
        • +ve ingroup exemplar (social norms, reduce anxiety)
        • -ve outgroup exemplar (reduces stereotypes)


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