The sampling process

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  • Sampling process
    • Sampling unit = the induviduals involved in the research
    • Sampling frame = a list from which the sample will be taken from e.g. census
    • Representative sample = trying to ensure the sample is as representative as possible
    • Types of sample
      • Random sampling = everyone in the sampling frame has an equal chance of selection
        • Un-bias
        • Un-representative = the sampling frame may be innacurate thus creating errors
      • Systematic sampling = the sample is chosen by selecting every 5th, 12th or 25th name from the sampling frame
        • Cant be generalised
        • Not representative of the WHOLE of society
      • Stratified sampling
        • Population is divided into catagories based on ethnicity, gender, age, class then the sample is chosen to reflect the catagories
          • Representative, valid
          • Bias,not everyone is registered on the census/may lie on it
      • Quota sampling
        • Used by researches in public who stop people to answer questions e.g. women from 25-40
          • Specific in depth data, valid to the research
          • Cant be generalised, bias
      • Snowball sampling = researchers make contact with someone to research another, then another & so on.....used when researches cant gain access to their wanted participants due to small population, don't wish to be identified e.g. heroin users, historic/personal documents
        • LOTS of data, not time consuming
        • May not be accurate, people may refuse to participate, volunteers may be bias/lie
      • Cluster samping
        • Researcher selects a series of places then chooses a sample at random within those areas
          • People may refuse to participate due to cultural differences, reluctancy to share private info, time consuming, risk of criminalising themselves


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