Sociology

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Bias

Where the views of the researcher affect the research

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Causal relationships

The relationship between the two social events

One causing the other

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• Generalizability

Where sociologists study a representative of the population as a whole, then they will be able to make generalizations about the whole society.

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• Hypothesis

A study of testing cause and effect relationships

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• Methodology

The process of undertaking research using appropriate sociological methods

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• Objective

The researchers’ values don’t affect their work/Unbiased

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• Primary data

Information gained by the sociologist themselves

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Positivism

An approach that looks at the whole of the society when studying it

likes 100% facts and statistics

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qualititative data

Information gained from a range of sources,but not statistical

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quantitative data

statistical information

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Triangulation

Term often used to describe the use of multiple methods

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Verstehen

Empathy - german word

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Secondry data

Information obtained from sources or using other research

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Reliability

repeatable if the same research can be repeated and produces the same results

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validity

data which gives the true picture of the subject being studided

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representativeness

study of a cross section of the population which is genralised about

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interpretive approcah

sociological theories that study the ways in which indviduals see society

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cluster sampling

The researcher selects a seris of different places and then choses a sample at random within the cluster of people within that area.

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Comparative method

A comparison accross countries or culture - sociological version of an experiment

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cross-sectional survey /snap shot survey/social su

A survey conducted at one time with no attempt to follow up the people surveyed over a long time.

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Experiment

A highly controlled situation where the researcher trys to isolate the influence of each variable.

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Field experiment

An experiment takn in an community rather than an controlled environment

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Longitudanal survey

A survey carried out over a long amount of years on the same group

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Rappoport

A realationship of empathy and trust

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Pilot study

Draft/practise run

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Quota sample

where a representative sample of the population is chosen using known characteristics of the population.

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Random sampling

A representative sample of the population

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Sampling frame

A list used as the source of a random sample

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Snowball sampling

Where a sample is ganied using a series of personal contact.

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Stratified Sample

where the study of the population is divided according to different stratification eg: gender/ethnicity/social class

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Survey

A large scale piece of quantiative research aiming to make general statements about a particular population.

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Systematic sample

where every 10th name is chosen

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Theoratical sample

Where a untypical sample of the population is chosen to show a particular theory.

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Closed questions

specific reply

yes/no

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Open questions

Allows respondents to express themselves

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Coding

Questionnaire replies are given a number or code making it easier for the researcher to construct.

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Interviewer Bias

The influence of the interviewer on the way the respondents replies

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Operationalizing concepts

The process of defining concepts in a way which makes them measurable

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Structured Interviews

Where the questions are given in a particular order,no explaination or elaboration is allowed from the interviewer.

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Unstructured interviews

When the interviewer is allowed to explain and elaborate on questions

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Semi structured interview

using the same qusetions open or closed but the researcher can ask the respondedent to elaborate on certain anwsers.

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Covert

under Cover

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Overt

The participant knows

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Graded questions

Respondents are asked to grade/rate thier anwser of how much they agree with the qusetions.

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Control Group

A group of participants in a experiment,they are being examined and monitored under a controlled group.

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Control Group

A group of participants in a experiment,they are being examined and monitored under a controlled group.

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Experimental group

A group of researchers, measuring and recording any changes they observe

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Survey

A selection from the research of the population

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Standardise data

Data which is not random and ha a frame work

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Response rate

The number of participants responding or agree to the interview

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Methodology

The process of undertaking reserch using appropriate sociological methods

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Media Content Analysis

MCA is the deconstruction of pieces of media with a tendency towards either qualitative or quantitative reserch methods.

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Mass media

Methods of communication which is shown to a massive amount of people.

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