German revolution 1848-9

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  • Created by: Helena
  • Created on: 04-05-13 14:53
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  • Revolutions 1848-49
    • Frankfurt Parliament
      • The Declaration of Heidelburg
        • Changes to Germany's political institutions
        • 51 representatives from 6 states
        • 5th March 1848
        • There would be an elected representation of all states
          • This electorate would protect against internal and external dangers
      • The Vorparlament
        • 31st March 1848
          • 574 representatives met in Frankfurt
          • After 5 days of debate they agreed how to elect a national parliament
            • They would meet in Frankfurt
            • It should consist of 1 representative for every 50000 inhabitants
            • Elected by citizens who were of age and 'economically independent'
      • Filled the power void
        • Austria was busy dealing with their own revolutions
        • Prussia was in disarray after their revolutions
        • The Diet had collapsed and elected the Frankfurt Parliament as its successor
      • Intentions of the Frankfurt Parliament
        • Draw up a constitution
        • Agree a series of 'Basic Rights and Demands'
          • Freedom of the press
          • Fair taxation
          • Equality of political rights
          • German citizenship for all
      • What they achieved
        • Provisional central power
          • Under an elderly Austrian ARchduke, John
          • Had no money and no power
        • The Fifty Articles
          • equality before the law
          • Freedom of worship
          • Freedom of the press
          • freedom from arrest without warrant
          • An end to discrimination because of class
        • March 1849 constitution agreed.
          • Lower house to be elected by men over 25 of 'good reputation'
          • Upper house of reigning monarchs and princes
          • Houses would control legislation and finance
          • Emperor who would have power over all but would only be able to hold up legislation for a limited time
          • New Germany would not include Austria
      • Problems
        • No agreement could be made on a constitution
        • What was to be defined by 'Germany'
          • Grossdeutschland
          • kleindeutschland
        • No financial power
        • No army
        • Didn't have public support
      • Failure
        • The Parliament voted half heartedly for Prussian King Frederick William to be Emperor
          • He refused on the basis that it was not a title the Parliament had to offer
        • Various states rejected the constitution
    • Prussian Revolution
      • Frederick William IV
        • Unpredictable  and little insane
        • Friend and ally of Metternich
        • Flicked between liberal and reactionary
      • Revolution in Berlin
        • 13th March 1848
          • Asked for political concessions
          • Aims became confused over the next few days
        • 16th March
          • Frederick William agreed to a new constitution and to recall the united Diet and end censorship
        • To end the fighting the king offered to remove his troops if the barricades were removed
          • Misunderstood, the king was left in his palace guarded only by citizens
          • 21st March
            • Granted a series of reforms and agreed to set up a constitution
        • Prussian constitution
          • Independent judiciary
          • Men  voted in a representative assembly
          • Voters divided into 3 classes so the rich had more electoral power
          • In emergencies the king could suspend civil rights and collect taxes
          • Ministers to be appointed and dismissed by the king and were responsible to him
          • The king could alter the constitution whenever he wanted
          • The king retained control of the army
    • Failures
      • Limited revolution
        • Most revolts were peaceful
        • Support for the revolutionaries quickly died down
      • Revolutionary divisions
        • Nationalists
          • Unified state?
          • Federation?
          • Monarchy?
          • Republic?
        • Liberals
          • Wanted united empire with national Parliament
        • Radicals
          • social and political change within republican framework
      • Rural apathy
        • The harvests of 47 and 48 were better
        • Vast majority of population
        • weren't interested in urban revolutions
      • Loss of support
      • Conservative strength
        • Had more military power
        • Once Austria was secure in itself it would stick to it's policy to keep Germany divided
    • Causes
      • 1848 Cholera epidemic
      • Social and Economic problems
        • Increasing population
          • More people moving to towns
        • Life was hard in the country
          • high rents
          • difficult to make a living
        • Life was hard in the towns
          • Not enough jobs
          • Not enough Houses
          • Working conditions were atrocious
          • Poor sanitation
        • Economic crisis 1846-7
          • Bad Harvests
          • Potato blight
          • Rise in food prices
            • Less money spent on anything else
            • Wages cut
      • Political problems
  • German Revolts
    • Peasants attacked landlords, stormed castles and destroyed feudal records
    • Most German rulers gave in easily (if temporarily)
  • The Declaration of Heidelburg
    • Changes to Germany's political institutions
    • 51 representatives from 6 states
    • 5th March 1848
    • There would be an elected representation of all states
      • This electorate would protect against internal and external dangers

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