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  • Retailing
    • Out of town shopping centres
      • Merry Hill
        • annual turnover = £390 million
        • 350,000 visitors each week
        • Selected as Enterprise Zone by government in 1980- Round Oaks Steelworks closed in 1982 - 1300 jobs lost
        • Dudley Southern Bypass opened in 1999 - easier access
        • 3.2 million people live within a 45 minute drive
        • employs 2,700 locals
        • has caused decline in Dudley - 1 in 3 shops vacant or in worse state than before Merry Hill
        • poor accessibility for less mobile members of society- elderly and young people who are more reliant on public transport
      • attractive due to - larger plots, easy access, space for expansion, cheaper land
    • Pattern of retailing in the UK
      • 1970s = supermarkets superstores hypermarkets
      • 1980s = non-food retail parks (e.g. DIY) on outskirts of towns
      • 1990s = out of town shopping centres
      • 21st Century = e-commerce , online shopping, farmers markets and local produce, move towards small regular shops rather than bulk buying
    • Factors affecting retail change
      • Increased mobility - out of town - easy access
      • changing nature of shopping habits - online
      • changing expectations of shopping - entertainment as well as shops
      • changing nature of retailing - out of town cheaper for businesses, only a few well known supermarkets
      • economy - recessions and economic growth influence type of produce
    • Birmingham's Redevelopment
      • BEFORE - congested, only 1 department store, suffered due to Merry Hill
      • NOW - 150 shops, 8000 jobs created, 3000 car parking spaces, £2 million invested in street art (The Bull)
      • 26% of retailers in the Bullring have opened a 2nd/3rd store in the city. more footfall through the city - 7% increase in train usage


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