Responsible Tourism

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  • Responsible Tourism
    • Tourism Area Life Cycle
      • 1. Exploration - Very few visitors, no tourist facilities, area unspoiled, locals are welcoming
      • 2. Involvement - Small increase in tourist numbers, locals start providing facilities and getting involved, limited transport links
      • 3. Development - Numbers increasing, locals involved in development, good transport links
      • 4. Consolidation - Local economy relies heavily on tourism, strain on environment, rate drops, hostility between locals and tourists
      • 5. Stagnation - reached it's peak in visitor numbers, quality of facilities drops, damage on environment is apparent
      • 6. Decline - Poor image, area suffering economic downturn, decrease in visitors
      • 7. Rejuvanation - area is rebranded, old buildings are refurbished, new facilities built, targets a different market
    • Types
      • Ecotourism - Conserving the natural and cultural heritage by running operations such as conservation projects.
      • Responsible tourism - Refers to the tourists choices that effect the economy, environment etc.
      • Sustainable tourism - the needs of visitors, the industry and host communities to ensure positive future impacts.
    • Principles of responsible tourism
      • To minimise negative cultural, environmental and economic impacts.
        • Conduct environmental impact surveys; minimise international investment; limit visitor numbers; add conditions to planning permission
      • To create economic benefits for locals and improve their quality of life.
        • Give locals jobs and pay them a fair wage; give locals training; new developments have to allow locals to use their water and electricity
      • To promote respect between tourists and locals
        • Interaction with locals through employment; information boards; educate tourists
      • To promote conservation of natural and cultural heritage.
        • Give grants for building conservation; allow tourists to visit buildings; create national parks
    • Agents of Development
      • Public sector
        • Government; DCMS; local authority; tourist boards
      • Private sector
        • Landowners; leisure and entertainment facilities
      • Voluntary sector
        • Pressure groups; community groups
    • Objectives of tourism development
      • Economic
        • Emplyoment creation
        • Increased foreign currency earnings
        • Prevent leakage
        • Increase in income for private sector companies
        • Economic development  and rejuvanation
      • Environmental
        • Preservation of wildlife
        • Environmental education
        • Environmental improvememnts
      • Socio-cultural
        • Improved quality of life
        • Promoting understanding
        • Prevent staged authenticity
      • Political
        • Image enhancement
        • Creation of local and national identity
    • Posiitve impacts
      • Economic
        • Increase in domestic and foreign income
        • Mulitiplier effect
        • Improved infrastructure
        • Increased employment opportunities
      • Environmental
        • Regeneration of derelict areas
        • Habitat preservation
      • Sociocultural
        • Preservation of customs and crafts
        • Revival of festivals
        • Improved infrastructure
    • Negative impacts
      • Economic
        • Leakage
        • Changes to traditional employment
        • Problem of seasonal employment
        • Increased living costs
      • Environmental
        • Traffic congestion
        • Erosion of land
        • Loss of natural habitats
        • Pollution
      • Sociocultural
        • Crime & prostitution
        • Staged authenticity
        • Loss of cultural identity
        • Conflict with locals
    • Minimising negative effects of tourism
      • Planning control
        • Limit height of buildings
        • Zone resorts
        • Limit all inclusives
      • Sustainable tourism
        • Support local industries
        • Keep income in local areas
        • Protect areas with national parks
      • Visitor and traffic management
        • Park and ride schemes
        • Pedestrianised areas
        • One way systems
      • Assessing environmental impact
        • Local environmental health officer
        • Park ranger
      • Environmental auditing
        • Check the environmental  impact of an organisations activities and try to minimise it before it happens
    • Maximising positive effects of tourism
      • Maximising retention of visitor spending
        • Restrict amount of foreign investors
        • Train and educate locals
        • Invest in local businesses
        • Provide more tourist facilities
      • Investing income into community projects
        • Done through taxes
      • Widening access to facilities
        • Physical and price access
      • Staff training and development
        • Enhances image
        • Provides high quality service
      • Training and employment of locals
        • Decline in traditional jobs
        • Improves opportunities for locals
      • Tourism education
        • Holiday schemes - assist in conservation programmes
        • eg. National Trust
      • Financial contributions
        • Revenue from park fees can pay for protection and management of environmentally sensitive areas.

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