Responsible Tourism

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Principles of responsible tourism

Create economic benefits for locals and improve their quality of life 
Give locals jobs; give locals training; new developments have to allow locals to use their water and electricity

Promote conservation of cultural and natural heritage
Give grants for building conservations; open national parks; allow tourists to visit buildings

Promote respect between tourists and locals 
Interaction between tourists and locals through employment; educate tourists; information boards

Minimise negative economic, cultural and environmental impacts
Conduct environmental impact surveys; minimise international investment; limit visitor numbers; add conditions to planning permission 

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Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)

Exploration
Very few visitors; no tourist facilities; locals are welcoming; area is unspoiled; no transport links
Involvement
Limited transport links; small increase in visitor numbers; locals start providing tourist facilities
Development
Locals begin to get involved in development of area; improved transport links; tourist numbers increasing
Consolidation
Local economy heavily relies on tourism; strain on environment; hostility between locals and tourists; visitor numbers still increasing but rate drops
Stagnation
Visitor numbers reaches it's peak; quality of tourist facilities drops; environmental damage becomes apparent
Decline
Very few visitors; poor image; area suffering economic downturn
Rejuvanation
Area is rebranded; new facilities built; empty buildings refurbished; new market is targeted

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Objectives of tourism development

Economic objectives
Employment creation; increase in foreign currency earnings; prevent leakage; economic development and regeneration; increase income for private sector companies

Environmental objectives
Preservation of wildlife; environmental education; environmental improvements

Socio-cultural objectives 
Improved quality of life; promoting understanding; prevents staged authenticity

Political objectives 
Image enhancement; creation of local and national identity

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Impacts of tourism

POSITIVE IMPACTS
Economic impacts
Improved infrastructure; increased employment opportunities; mulitiplier effect; increased domestic/foreign income

Socio-cultural impacts
Improved infrastructure; preservation of customs and crafts; revival of ceremonies; provides community and public services 
Environmental impacts 
Habitat preservation; education for tourists and locals; regeneration of derelict areas

NEGATIVE IMPACTS
Economic impacts
Increased living costs; leakage; changes to traditional employment; seasonal employment
Socio-cultural impacts
Staged authenticity; loss of cultural identity; crime and prostitution; conflict with locals
Environmental impacts
Pollution; traffic congestion; erosion of land; loss of natural habitats 



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Minimising the negative effects of tourism

Planning control

Limit height of buildings; zone resorts; limit all inclusive and encourage self catering
Sustainable tourism
Support local industries; keep income in local areas; protect areas with national parks

Visitor and traffic management
Park and ride schemes; pedestrianised areas; one way systems 

Assessing environmental impact
Park rangers; local environmental health officer

Environmental auditing
Check environmental impact of an organisation's activities and try to minimise it before it happens

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Minimising the positive effects of tourism

Maximising retention of visitor spending
Restrict amount of foreign investors; train and educate locals; invest in local businesses; provide tourist facilities 

Investing income from tourism into community projects
Done through taxes

Widening access to facilities
Physical access; price access

Staff training and development
Provides a high quality service; enhances image; more people spend money

Training and employment of locals
Decline in traditional jobs; improves opportunities

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Case studies (Zimbabwe and Goa)

Zimbabwe
Under British colonial rule the population of Zimbabwe were forbidden from hunting. Animal populations boomed, leading to the destruction of human food crops, farmland, property and in some cases death. Following independence from Britain rule the policy of Operation Campfire was adopted. Villages were allowed to cull a percentage of certain animals to provide a meat source. As it developed game licenses were sold to tourists, increasing profits made by the scheme. Profits were invested into local projects such as schools and hospitals and locals felt like they were rediscovering some of their lost heritage. 

Goa
Until 1986 tourism in Goa was limited to Indian tourists. There were relatively few hotels and they were owned by locals. 1986 saw the arrival of package holidays from Europe and there was a new demand for three and four star hotels. Locals became concerned about the effects on the economy, environment and culture. In 1987 locals expressed their concerns by throwing cow dung at tourists in the airport. There is a considerable leakage of money out of the Goan economy. Local industries have been forced into decline - drying fish on the beach has been banned due to tourists complaining about the smell. Hotel management courses set up by the local government are giving more of the local unemployed the skills to fill higher paid jobs. Also many areas are feeling the effect of the multiplier. 

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Case studies (Bristol)

Bristol
Bristol's dockland area went into near terminal decline following the arrival of large cargo ships that could no longer navigate the Avon River, as well as the competition from the new docks at Avonmouth and Portbury. This led to the closure of several industries such as tobacco factories. It left lots of empty but listed buildings. As the docks declined Bristol was faced with vast areas of derelict land and high unemployment in certain areas. In order to address this problem the docks would be redeveloped. The ** Great Britain was restored in an attempt to attract a large number of visitors. Lloyds TSB relocated their headquarters to the dockland area which acted as a grea spur for investment. Over the past 30 years the area has seen many changes including the introduction of a IMAX theatre, a science museum and the Millennium Square. It is now one of the largest redevelopment projects in Europe. 

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