Religion in the reigns of Charles I and James I

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  • Religion in the reigns of James I and Charles I
    • religious tensions
      • The reformation was the main source of religious tension. Should it go further?- Puritans. Has it gone too far?- Arminians.
      • JAMES I- Millenary Petition from the Puritans. They wanted modifications to the church services, the freedom of ministers, and reform of ecclesiastical courts. James believed in predestination therefore was open to negotiations. James 1603 announced all income from impropriated tithes would be devoted to paying better salaries to church ministers. In response to the Millenary Petition James held the Hampton Court conference in 1604. After Bancroft's Canons 1% were expelled from their positions- Silent Brethren. But James went back on his word in response to the Northamptonshire Puritan petition James acknowledged the loyalty of puritans and after 1606 allowed reforms to the 1604 settlement.
      • At the end of his reign James started to support Arminianism, reaction to Puritanism. Linked to foreign policy.  James is exasperated by Puritan calls for entering the Thirty Years War. James considered himself to be a Rex Pacificus.
      • There were more religious tensions in the reign of Charles I, as he abandoned the Jacobethan balance, strove for religious conformity, and favoured Arminianism.
        • conspiracy mentality developed inside and outside of court, as Charles was out of touch with the Political Nation.
      • Fear of Catholicism underlined religious tensions. Fear was heightened due to the Thirty Years War. Catholicism was linked with absolutism.
        • The Reformation. The burning of Protestants when England briefly returned to Catholicism under Mary I. The war against Spain during the reign of Elizabeth I.
      • Scotland. Charles wanted religious uniformity. Introduced the Book of Cannons in 1636. In 1637 Charles introduced a New English Prayer Book. Riot in St.Giles. National Covenant.
      • Root and Branch petition in 1640. Demanding the abolition of bishops. Signed by 15,000 Londoners.
    • Religions
      • Protestantism
        • Conservative Anglican Calvinists. Moderates. CofE.
        • Puritanism. 'The Hotter Sort of Protestant'. Vocal minority. Well organised. Most similar to Presbyterians
        • Presbyterian. Main religion of Scotland. Plain vestments. Salvation through predestination.
        • Arminianism. Mostly similar to Calvinism. But also similar to Catholicism.
      • Catholicism
    • Charles I
      • Promotion of Arminianism
        • In 1625, Charles defended the Armenian Richard Montagu when he argued Calvinist beliefs were incompatible with the church.
        • Montagu was appointed Charles's personal chaplain. And later the Bishop of Chicester.
        • William Laud was appointed to the Privy Council when he became bishop of London. Later the Archbishop of Canterbury.
        • The Archbishop of Canterbury was suspended in 1627 for refusing to grant an Arminian sermon.
      • The York House Conference 1626. The primary aim was to resolve the ongoing dispute between Puritans and Arminians. Charles did not show and appointed Buckingham chair, who supported the Arminians.
      • Personal Rule
        • The Beauty of Holiness. Organs and singing encouraged. Decorated fonts. Statues and colour. Stained glass. The communion table was moved from the centre to the east end. it was railed off.
          • The Status of the Clergy. Laud wanted to enhance the power of the Church hierarchy. He ordered bishops to visit their parishes. Archbishops reported to Charles. A campaign against unlicensed preaching. The Star Chamber was used to judge religious cases. Harsh punishments
          • The Book of Sports. Charles reissued this in 1633. Upset puritans who believed that Sunday should be for pray only.
          • Feoffees of Impropriations.
          • Opposition to religious reform. Emigrated to North America. Bastwick, Burton and Prynne: All three were fined £5,000, imprisoned for life and ordered to have part of their ears cut off, because they opposed the reforms.

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