JAMES I

what happened in 1603?
James I becomes king of England and moves to London
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what was his character like?
very intelligent, exceptional memory, tolerant, peacemaker, extravagant, had favourites, terrible manners
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what was ordinary revenue?
it was the income that the monarch received each year. it was not dependent on parliamentary grants.
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What ordinary revenues did James use to gain an income?
crown lands, customs revenue like tonnage and poundage, wardship, purveyance and impositions.
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what was extraordinary revenue?
it was usually parliamentary grants such as subsidies for wars or emergencies or taxes which were granted for a limited amount of time. The crown should be able to finance itself using ordinary revenues.
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Did james start his reign with debt?
yes there was a £400,000 debt left by Elizabeth however it was covered by money owed by France and the dutch and by an uncollected subsidy voted in 1603.
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what was bate's case? (1606)
John Bate was a merchant who was taken to court for refusing to pay a duty on currants imposed by James. Bate claimed that the duty had not been sanctioned by parliament so it was not legal. However he lost as james had right to regulate trade
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how much did impositions gain? (1608)
impositions were levied on 1400 items which brought in £70,000 a year to the crown
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how much did james's debt increase in 3 years? And why did it increase that much?
debt reached £816,000 within 3 years due to his extravagance with jewels, clothes, his generosity with favourites and 3 households.
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how much were ante-suppers?
£2200
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how many treasures did James have and what were their names?
He had 4. Thomas sackville the earl of dorset, robert cecil the earl of salisbury, thomas howard the earl of suffolk and lionel cranfield the earl of middlesex
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what did thomas sackville the earl of dorset do to improve royal finances? was he a good treasurer?
he increased impositions after bate's case in 1606. he sold the right to collect customs duties to a group of merchants in return for £112,000. he was impeached for corruption.
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what did robert cecil do to try and stop james's extravagance? was he a successful treasurer?
The book of bounty in 1608 which gave the king an agreed amount of crown gifts and pensions to give to favourites. he did the book of rates which extended impositions and reduced the royal debt by £500,000. he was a good treasurer.
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Did the book of bounty work?
not really as by 1610 james had given away £36,000 to favourites which was over the agreed amount
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what was the great contract?
It was suggested by 1610 by salisbury. In return for an annual grant of £200,000 and a one off payment of £600,000. James would abolish wardship, purveyance and feudal tenures
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Was the great contract successful?
No, MPs were afraid that the money would benefit the scots and the king's favourites. MPs also feared tyranny as james wouldn't need to call parliament as he would have money. James was also against it as he would lose some of his prerogative powers.
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what did Thomas howard do to improve royal expenditure? was he successful?
he sold titles including a newly invented title 'baronet' and sold earldoms at £10,000. He started the spanish match for the dowry and the Cockayne scheme. he was not successful. The crown debt doubled from £500,000 to £900,000. He was corrupt.
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What was the Cockayne scheme?
William Cockayne was a merchant who convinced the king to prohibit unfinished cloth to be exported to the netherlands. This would generate employment in the finishing of the cloth and increase customs revenue.
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Did the cockayne scheme work?
NO as the dutch found new sources of unfinished cloth and cockayne didn't have enough resources to buy all the cloth necessary to finish the products. this meant that in two years exports went down by a third. the scheme was a failure.
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What did Lionel Cranfield do to reduce royal expenditure?
he balanced james's books by reducing the royal household budget. He refused to sell crown lands and demanded an immediate stop to the paying of pensions to favourites. He eliminated corrupt and unnecessary officials.
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was cranfield successful?
yes he increased royal income by £80,000. however this never made a lasting difference as he couldn't stop james's extravagance. Cranfield was impeached for corruption.
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Was there ever a significant financial solution for james?
No due to his extravagance, corruption amongst lord treasurers and refusal of wealthy to pay taxes.
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what was the overbury case?
overbury was a friend of robert carr who oppesed his marriage to Howard. overbury died in the tower. years later it was found out that it was francis howard and robert carr who had planned the murder of overbury.
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What was the effect of the overbury case?
it was the downfall of the howards and favourite Robert carr. It was the rise of Buckingham. Francis Howard and carr were sent to the tower. the case showed the corruption in the court.
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what did james believe in?
he was a calvinist he believed in predestination but disliked the calvinist church organization. he wanted order and hierarchy in his church. 'no bishops no king'
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what was the millenary petition?
written in 1603 it was a set of demands by the puritans which was supposed to cleanse the church of the remains of popish practice.
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what was the hampton court conference?
it was held in 1604 by James and was a disputation between bishops and puritans. the puritans were not granted any changes other than a new translation of the bible. bishops were kept.
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what was the gunpowder plot? (1605)
it was a plot led by robert catesby to remove the king and parliament with an explosion. it was not successful as the plot was revealed by a conspirator.
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what was the consequence of the gunpowder plot?
the increase of recusancy fines and catholics being forbidden to live in london
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what was the spanish marriage? (1614)
james decided to match his son charles to a spanish princess. the spanish would give a £600.000 dowry. The spanish never intended to proceed with it so it was a failure.
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what was the book of sports? how was it perceived?
it was issued in 1618 and it meant that sports could be played on the holy day. this infuriated the puritans who saw the sunday as their rest and worship day.
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what was the treaty of london?
it was signed in 1604 it was an agreement to end the war between england and spain. it benefitted the economy as england gained trading rights in spain and america.
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how did the 30 years war start?
A catholic king, ferdinand, was elected to be king of bohemia a protestant country. the bohemians offered the crown to frederick of the palatinate who was protestant. ferdinand invaded bohemia and took the palatinate driving Frederick out.
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how did james get involved in the 30 years war?
frederick was his son in law so he helped him gain his lands of the palatine back. he was hoping to get an alliance with another country to win.
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what was the trip to madrid in 1623?
charles and buckingham went to spain to try and push forward the marriage negotiations. it ended as a failure as they became prisoners and no deal was made. when they returned they wanted war against spain
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what was the french alliance? 1624
In 1624 a marriage treaty was signed with the french. charles would marry henrietta maria. it was agreed that henrietta could practice catholicism in england but no mention was made of the military alliance to fight in the palatine.
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what happened in the 1604 parliament?
james wanted to unite england and scotland and called himself the king of great britain. MPs refused to support james on the unification idea. james continued to collect wardship and purveyance. A subsidy of £400.000 was granted.
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what happened during the Addled parliament of 1614?
nothing, no laws were passed and no supply was made therefore it is known as the addled.
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what happened during the parliament of 1621
parliament gives two subsidies for £140.000. parliament wanted monopolies to be abolished. james angered by the commons interference in the spanish match. they suggest a protestant queen for charles.
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what was the protestation of the commons? (1621)
it was issued by the commons and it reminded the king of their rights. It stated: freedom of speech, freedom of arrest and more discussion in parliament. all of this to be respected by james.
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what happened in the 1624 parliament?
james accepted the subsidy act, the statue of monopolies and the impeachment of cranfield. War with catholic spain was decided. the king wanted a land war whilst the commons a sea war.
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what was the subsidy act? (1624)
king needed money for war so parliament granted £300.000. this money could only be spent on war supplies and the navy and would be under the supervision of officials appointed by parliament.
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what was the statue of monopolies? (1624)
the king's right to make grants to individuals was limited
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

very intelligent, exceptional memory, tolerant, peacemaker, extravagant, had favourites, terrible manners

Back

what was his character like?

Card 3

Front

it was the income that the monarch received each year. it was not dependent on parliamentary grants.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

crown lands, customs revenue like tonnage and poundage, wardship, purveyance and impositions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

it was usually parliamentary grants such as subsidies for wars or emergencies or taxes which were granted for a limited amount of time. The crown should be able to finance itself using ordinary revenues.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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