James I and Charles I

  • Created by: lou9119
  • Created on: 30-04-18 21:41

James I and Charles I


  • Finance: Each struggled to pass legislation, for example, JI couldn't gain subsidies due to his extravagant lifestyle (failure of the Great Contract 1610) whereas CI needed money for his involvement in 30 YW and was not granted the expected T&P at the beginning of his reign. Each were seemingly careless with finance, CI found the treasurey practically empty on coming to the throne. Both used monoplies (failure of the Cockayne Project 1614)
  • Foreign Policy: Both wanted Scotland to join the union, whereas this failed for JI in 1606 CI pushed reform such as introducing the Canons and King James bible; this would cause the Bishops' Wars. James also tried to bring the church closer to that in England through the Five Articles of Perth.
  • Religion: Both disliked Puritan belief, JI strayed away from Scottish Presbyterianism he had traumatically been brought up (Bancroft Canons 1604) and clearly in the 1626 York House Conference both CI and Buckingham were viewed as supporters of Arminianism; in the 1604 Hampton Court Conference radical puritans were also dissatisfied with the outcome. CI reissued the 1618 Book of Sports that JI failed with. Each were lenient with Catholics; moderate Oath of Allegiance issued in 1606.
  • Character: Both strongly believed in divine right, especially with JI's fear of threats to the throne (father murdered, mother executed), and CI's personal rule.
  • Relationship with Parliament: Issue over Buckingham and royal advisors in general.


  • Finance: Where JI would choose to understand Parliament at times, CI pushed highly criticised policies such as the Forced Loan and Ship Money (Hampden's Case 1636)
  • Foreign Policy: JI was hesitant to join the 30 YW but did declare war on Spain toward the end of his reign. For Charles, the beginning of his reign was fundamental to success (or lack of) against both Spain and France. (Cadiz and La Rochelle) CI moved into Ireland with Wentworth and Lord Deputy, made agreements with Catholics to protect their land.
  • Religion: JI tended to be more lenient toward religions, beginning his reign with contrary hope to Puritans that he would, unlike EI, be more accepting of the religion (1603 Millenary Petition). CI began to stray heavily toward Arminianism (Montagu, Abbott suspended for not allowing Arminian sermon) and later in his reign Laudianism. Trial of Bastwick, Burton and Prynne for resistance against Laudian reforms.
  • Character: JI a strong, intelligent and ideological King that easily accepted the strong resentment from Parliament on many policies. Whereas CI struggled with speech and isolated himself from the access of Parliament. JI was more vain and spent large sums on parties (especially the Funeral and marriage in his immediate family)
  • Relationship with Parliament: CI pushed the boundaries with Parliament which would inevitably lead to the Civil War, things such as the Five Knights Case was heavily detested by P; this would later cause P to deem necessary the Petition of Right. His personal rule was detested by P.

Overall comparison

Overall the two kings were similar in their policies of religion, finance and foreign policy. However, the characters of the two kings proved crucial in deciding their relationship with Parliament. For James this was to be a mostly progressive and functional relationship due to the ideological stature he represented. However, for Charles, this was more difficult due to his stubborn nature and thus the constant disapproval from Parliament would eventually lead to the undeniable tension and the English civil war. 




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