James I English revolution

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  • James I
    • Masque
      • highly stylised courtly play
      • supposed to show the great Christian values, Faith, hope, charity and peace
        • thirty years of war - James' son in law owned a section ni spain, in the centre.
          • around this area was catholic, so it broke out into a religious war, and James helped his son in law by getting England involved
    • experienced monarch of 37 years
      • He displayed little of Elizabeth I's regal poise and dignity
        • pure Protestant (Puritan)
    • Court was vulgar and brash
    • offended contemporary sensibilities by his persuit of virile young men
    • flexible thinker and generally a successful ruler
    • saw himself as a monarch who could rise above religious, political and foreign divisions
    • Church of England
      • English churchmen known as puritans, who though Elizabeth hadn't taken religious seriously enough, used the opportunity of her death to draw up a list of reforms for James to consider
        • list contained over 1000 signatures, therefore became known as the 'Millenary Petition''.
          • was reasonable to think James would look favourably on their requests, as the Scottish Kirk was much stricter on its version of Protestantism than Elizabeth's moderate church of England
            • Scottish Kirk was Presbyterian in its structure
      • ''No Bishop, No King!''
      • Until the outbreak of the Thirty Years War 1618, James was relatively successful in managing to keep the church of England broad enough to hold moderates and Puritans in a relationship that generally worked well
        • 1604, James' first appointment for the key role of Archbishop of Canterbury was an anti-puritan Richard Bancroft
          • Bancroft favoured a strict approach to religious conformity, but only removed 9 Puritan Clergy for non-conformity, whilst many others were protected by sympathetic Bishops
          • Next appointment was George Abbot, who sat firmly on the Puritan side, but  1618 worked with James on a Book of sports
            • book of sports outraged Puritans by encouraging recreational activities for Sundays, which they condemned as unholy pastimes
            • Was Archbishop of Canterbury 1611-1633. Won favour of James by supporting the Union of the English and Scottish Churches
              • wasn't universally popular as he was puritan, which annoyed moderate protestants
                • strongly anti-catholic
      • had a broad church which pleased everyone
    • Gunpowder plot
      • had to deal with Catholics
      • in keeping with his personal approach to religion, he initially promised that he wouldn't 'persecute any that will be quiet and give an outward obedience to the law'
        • public hostility to such a policy like this was intense, and James was outmaneuvered by his first Parliament
          • Parliament forced him to reverse his tolerant approach by withholding money from him
            • This reversal triggered the Gunpowder plot
        • was very tolerant of Catholics at first, then disliked them after Guy Fawks
      • attempt by Catholic terrorists to kill the King and his government - 1605 and replace him wit a Catholic monarch
      • consequences of the discovery of the plot;
        • recusancy fines increased
    • Parliament
      • important part of the governmental system in England
      • responsible for raising and approving legislation and had to consent to certain forms of taxation, which the King needed to raise money
      • The king was in charge of calling Parliament, which would trigger a general election, as well as dissolving it
        • if he wanted to temporarily suspend them he would prorogue it, which meant the MP's didn't have to be re-elected but they wouldn't meet until he called them to Westminster
    • Financial problems
      • relationship between King and Parliament was strained because James faced multiple financial problems
      • Elizabeth died with a significant debt that transferred to James
      • his household was considerably bigger than hers, with a wife and three children to provide for
      • Wars were expensive, and England was still at war with Spain when he succeeded the throne
      • needed to display generous patronage to his new subjects, especially nobles to bond them to his court
      • needed to maintain English prestige with an equally vibrant environment as Spain and France had glamorous extravagant courts.
      • could raise a certain amount of money by prerogative means, but needed to call Parliament for large sums. Parliament were reluctant to grant him money without getting something in return known as the 'redress of grievances' whereby he would put right things they were unhappy about.
      • Scotland were relatively poor, James seriously under estimated how much money the English Crown had in contrast.
  • James required outward conformity to the 1605 revision
  • James required outward conformity to the 1604 revision of the official book of Common Prayer, which established the official liturgy (wording of church services) in Ireland and England, but showed considerable flexibility within Scottish church
    • introduced it much more slowly in Scotland, revising it to include more Scottish elements, and ultimately stopping short of pushing it through Parliament due to the resistance it was stirring
      • he hoped to unite England and Scotland fully under one government and one religion, but proved too difficult to achieve in his own reign, but added further political and religious problems to Charles's inheritance 1625.


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