Religion, Humanism, arts and learning

  • Created by: Christine
  • Created on: 18-02-19 14:41
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  • Religion, humanism, arts and learning
    • Function of the church
      • all people belong to Catholic Church
      • Church provided popular entertainment
      • guild and confraternity offered charity
      • easier for political elite to maintain social control
      • employment opportunities- Cardinal Wolsey
      • Erastain relationship:State had authority over church
        • H7 could use the wealth of church how he pleased
      • most senior figure in church usually from senior rank of aristocracy
      • clergymen often had legal training to perform duties to church and state
        • had a range of administrative and management skills
    • Religious belief
      • Eamon duffy:Church central to religious experience
      • medieval belief that prayers made together was more powerful than those made alone
      • church provided a framework for how a person through and acted
        • offered various ways how a person acquires grace to spend little time in purgatory
      • following was required to reach heaven
        • baptism,confimation,marriage,anoiting of the sick, penance,holy orders and eurcharist
      • belief in transubstantiation: bread and wine changed into body and blood of christ by ordained priest
        • Corpus Christi was a feast of Catholic Church, increasing emphasis on transubstantiation
      • mass important as sacrifice performed by priest on behalf of community , sacred ritual which the whole community acted in
    • Church social role
      • dying would often leave money to parish church to pay for service materials
        • for remembrance and less time in purgatory  of the benefactor
      • benefactor would leave money to the chantries as their donations as a way of  benefiting from the religious experience:wy dissolution of chantries is not good
        • chantries  function was intercession for ones soul
      • confraternity provided for mass, church fabric and socialisation, raised funds for church-ale festivals
        • popular and Wealther confraternities could be sources of local power
      • pilgrimage may have slowed down after Thomas a Kempis was critical of pilgrimage practise
        • pilgrimage showed religious devotion
        • simpler pilgrimage called Rogation Sunday where people walked round parish boundaries with parish cross to ward off evil spirits
      • individual religious experience was important esp. to mystics who believed in personal communication with God
    • Religious orders
      • Monks
        • 1% of  adult males in 1500 were monks
        • Came from a range of social backgrounds
        • monasteries recruited from localities
      • friars
        • relied on chritable donations
        • mainly recruited from lower the social scale
        • chistorpherHarper-Bill: by end of 1400s the days of the friars were over
          • various orders of friars received money in wills from benefactors
      • nunneries
        • less  popular as women were deemed to be unmarriable
        • relatively poor apart from Syon
    • Humanism
      • development of the renaissance interested in establishing Latin and Greek translationsto purify religious text
      • Grocyn lectured on  the ideas of Plato and Aristotle
      • Colet saw humanism as. way of reforming Church
      • Erasmus epitomised the sprit of new learning
      • Even though printing began in 1477, it has little to do with humanist ideals
        • during H7 humanism had little influence
          • intellectual life dominated by tradition medieval scholastic philosophy
    • Education
      • 53 new grammar schools between 1460 and 1509
      • latin was central to grammar schools
        • although reforms by Magdalen College Oxford, English was a byproduct of latin teachings
      • Oxford expanded colleges but stopped after 1450s
      • Cambridge had several new colleges due to funding by Lady Margret of Beaufort
    • Drama
      • important for festival occasions
      • drama presented at church-ale festivals
    • Music
      • accompanied drinking songs
      • choral music renaissance from single lined chants to polyphonic choral music
    • Art
      • most churches built in gothic perpendicular style- quite primitive
      • early on printing press printed Canterbury tales and chivaric romances
      • When H7 died, humanism emerged from Italy
        • Works by Erasmus, ThomasMore and Colet was more fashionable
    • Anticlericalism
      • lollards placed stress on bible translation to English
        • sceptical of transubstantiation
        • thought catholic church was corrupt
        • denied the idea of special status of priesthood
      • lollard were considered heresy and popularity declined after failed lollard uprising1414
      • heresy was introduced as an act by brurining in 1404
      • some people believe that anticlericalism was widespread
        • Haigh  believedthat anticlericalism was rare and politically motivated

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