Reliability and validity- schizophrenia

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  • Reliability and Validity
    • Test-Retest
      • When two tests are done and both reach the same result even though they are conducted at different times.
    • Culture Differences
      • There is a large differences between cultures when diagnosing schizophrenia
      • Luhrmann et al (2015) studied 60 adults--> 20 from Ghana, India and the USA.
        • Ghana and India heard positive voices.
        • USA heard more negative voices.
    • Gender Bias
      • Diagnostic categories are more biased towards one gender.
      • Boverman et al (1970) males naturally act more mentally healthy.
        • Which means that females are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia
          • As their behaviour naturally seems more abnormal
    • Symptom Overlap
      • Some schizophrenia symptoms are seen in order disorders.
      • Ellason and Ross (1995) found people with dissociative identity disorder (DID) had some schitz symptoms
    • Co-morbidity
      • Two or more disorders at the same time
      • Swets et al (2014) carried out a meta-analysis.
        • Found that 12% of schtz patients fulfilled the OCD criteria.


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