regulation of blood glucose and insulin secretion

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  • regulation of blood glucose and insulin levels
    • the pancreas
      • haa both endocrine and exocrine functions
      • majority of cells manufacture and release digestive enzymes
      • the cells that manufacure the enzymes are found in tiny tubules, these tubules join to make the pancreatic duct
      • the pancreatic duct carries enzymes to the small intestine
      • cells in the pancreas
        • the islets of langerhans are small patches of tissues which have endocrine function
        • alpha and beta cells are found in the islets of langerhans
        • alpha secrete glucagon and beta secrete insulin
        • insulin causes blood glucose to decrease and glucagon causes it to increase
    • glucose levels too high
      • 1: B cells secrete insulin into blood, they target hepatocytes and some muscles cells.
      • 2: the insulin binds to receptors and activates adenyl cyclase which converts ATP into cAMP
      • 3:  ore glucose channels move to cell surface membrane more glucose enters the cells, more glucose converted to glycogon more glucose converted to fats and used in respiration
    • glucose levels too low
      • 1:a cells secret glucagon
      • 2: it targets hepatocytes and converts glycagon into glucose.
      • 3: also uses more fatty acids in respiration
    • terms needed to know
      • glyconoegenesis is fats into glucose
      • glycogenolysis is glycogen to glucose
      • glycogenesis is glucose to glycogen
    • insulin levels
      • 1: cell membrane has K and Ca channels
      • 2: K channels normally open and K ions flow out
      • 3: when blood glucose conc. too high glucose moves into cell
      • 4: glucose metabolised to produce ATP
      • 5: ATP closes K channels, accumulation of K ions alters pot.diff. inside is less negative
      • 6: causes Ca channels to open
      • 7: Ca ions cause vesicles containing insulin to fuse with cell surface mebrane and release insulin via exocytosis


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