Regulation of blood GLUCOSE

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  • Regulation of blood glucose
    • Insulin is a hormone released from the pancreas that causes blood glucose levels to go DOWN/DECREASE.
    • Islet of Langerhans contain different types of cells. alpha cells and beta cells.
      • Alpha cells manufacture and secrete GLUCAGON. Beta cells manufacture and secrete INSULIN. This is the ENDOCRINE function of the PANCREAS.
    • Glucagon is a hormone that causes blood glucose levels to RISE/INCREASE.
    • If the concentration rises or falls away from the acceptable normal concentration, then the ALPHA and BETA cells  will DETECT the change and RESPOND by releasing a hormone.
    • If blood glucose rises too HIGH:
      • Detected by the B cells which will secrete INSULIN into the blood.
      • HEPATOCYTES possess specific membrane-bound RECEPTORS for insulin. The insulin will BIND  to these receptors.
      • The binding will activate ADENYL CYCLASE which converts ATP to cAMP.cAMP activates enzyme-controlled reactions.
      • MORE glucose CHANNELS placed in membrane. MORE glucose in cell which is converted to GLYCOGEN (GLYCOGENESIS). MORE glucose converted to FATS and MORE used in RESPIRATION.
    • If blood glucose drops too LOW:
      • Detected by A cells which will secrete the hormone GLUCAGON into the blood.
      • HEPATOCYTES possess specific RECEPTOR for glucagon. Glucagon will BIND to the receptors.
        • Conversion of glycogen to GLUCOSE (GLYCOGENOLYSIS). Use of MORE FATTY ACIDS in respiration.
          • Production of glucose by conversion from AMINO ACIDS and FATS (GLUCONEOGENESIS).

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