Italy (2)

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  • Regional contrasts in development in Italy
    • Agriculture
      • Mainstay of life in this area
        • characterised by poor organisation + low yielding crops
      • Physical difficulties
        • Soil fertility
        • higher summer temps 30oC
        • Drought conditions
          • worsened by overgrazing of sheep + goats, along with deforestation
      • Land was in large estates or lalifundia owned by landlords
        • rented to tenant farmers
        • Interests in more fertile, low lying land
          • however the tenant farmers left with high land + less fertile soil
      • Tenant farmers lived in poor + overcrowded hilltop villages as they practised outdated peasant style farming
        • eventually farms not viable
        • Results in many landless labourers + high unemployment rates
          • move to Northern Italy for work
          • Important income source for those left behind
    • Post War development
      • Mezzogiorno presented a very negative image to Northern Italians
      • little chance at their region benefitting from post WW2 economic prosperity
    • 1950
      • unemployment in South
        • figures were hidden by men who joined the army or migrated north
      • After the war little chance of finding employment
        • need government  intervention
        • resulted in 'Cassa per il Mezzogiorno
          • a regional development authority
    • 1950-1957
      • agricultural reform was main achievement
      • large estates were broken up and allocated plots 5-25 hectares to the peasent farmers
      • marshy areas were drained and cleared from malaria -carrying mosquitoes
      • Irrigation schemes introduced to offset
      • Accessibility improved from building a motorway to link Mezzogirno to Northern Italy
      • Homes connected to a mains water supply


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