Public Health: GCSE MEDICINE

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  • Public Health.
    • Roman Public Health.
      • They built a public health system because they thought dirty water was the cause of disease, cities were large and crowded
      • The main parts of the Roman water system were:
        • Aqueducts: Bring in fresh water
        • Latrines: public toilets flushed with water
        • Public Baths
        • Sewers: Take waste away
        • Fountains
        • They needed their soldiers fit, therefore they built water systems for their army fort, they did not know the connection between germs and disease
    • Public Health After Romans.
      • War in middle ages: Roman public health system destroyed
      • Kings spent their money on weapons instead of public heath  improvements
      • There was a lack of understanding disease
        • People in the middle ages and the renaissance did not know that germs caused disease so they did not build public health systems
    • Public Health Problems in 1800.
      • Overcrowding: Families lived in single rooms
      • No sanitation: No sewers to remove waste
      • Cesspits: human waste dumped in pits until overflowed
      • Privies: toilets were holes in the ground which had to be emptied by hand
      • Rivers: Waste dumped straight into rivers
      • No fresh water
      • Diseases: Cholera and Smallpox spread quickly
    • Reasons why people were against cleaning towns in 1800.
      • Laissez Faire Ideas: People believed that the government should not interfere into people's lives, every town for itself
      • Money: Tax payers did not want to pay more to clean up cities for the poor
        • Landlords who rented houses did not want to pay to connect the house to a water supply
      • Science: People still believed in the miasma theory and did not know of the presence of germs
    • Seven Factors made people clean towns
      • Cholera Epidemics: 1832, 1847, 1854
        • Impact: Killed thousands of people in towns, frightened people and made them more willing to pay tax
        • People still did not see why they should get a clean water supply, since they believed in the miasma theory
      • Edwin Chadwick's report 1842
        • Wrote a sanitary report on poor area's of London.
        • He said there were Dirty living conditions
          • Sickness
          • Tax: it was costing tax ratepayers too much to look after the sick
        • Impact: It persuaded the government to run a public health act ( 1848),
          • However, it was voluntary, so tax payers did nothing to clean conditions
      • Snows discovery 1854:
        • He observed and figured out a link between proved deaths and a water pump in Broad street
        • The germ theory had not been published yet, Snow was the first to link disease with water, which made towns clean up
          • However, many scientists still believed in the miasma theory, and saw no reason to clean up
      • The Great Stink 1858
        • The Summer was hot, and the smell in the dirty river of Thames was unbearable
        • The smell was so bad, it convinced the government to build a new sewer system in London
          • However, no action was taken to clean up other towns across the country
      • Pasteur's Germ Theory: 1861
        • Proved that disease was spread through germs
        • It finally proved that dirt caused disease, persuaded tax payers to cover costs of public health reform
      • The vote: 1967
        • In 1867, working class men in towns were given the right to vote.in 1884 working class men in the country were given the right to vote
        • They had to start making promises which appealed to the working class: making clowns clean
      • Improved Technology
        • Steam powered Machinery: Made it possible to build huge pipelines
        • Lavatories: Flushing toilets meant no need for privies
        • Vaccination: Made it possible to protect the people from small pox
    • Public health improvements ( 19th Century)
      • Bazalgette's Water system: After Great Stink 1858
      • 1857 Public health act: Making it compulsory for councils to cover costs of public health facilities
      • Other public  Health law's: improved housing standards, food standards and compulsory health education for children
      • Compulsory vaccination for small pox after 1872
      • Impact: This changed made towns cleaner, and infant deaths decreaed
    • Liberal Health Reforms: 20th Century
      • Compulsory training for midwives
      • Free school meals
      • Old Age pensions
      • National Insurance act 1911: Set up sickness fund for all workers
    • World War 2 1939-1945
      • Evacuation: Middle class families in the countryside were shocked at poor health in  working class evacuees
      • The  Blitz Spirit: Created a sense of community and working together. They began to believe in good healthcare and not just wealth
    • The NHS 1945-(20th Century)
      • The Beveridge Report 1942: Said that NHS Should be set up to provide free healthcare
      • The NHS was set up in 1945
      • There was opposition to the NHS
        • Doctors did not want to be told what to do by the government and wanted freedom
        • Attitudes to poor: some people still believed that poor were lazy and should not be helped, giving them free healthcare would make them lazier
        • Councils did not want governments to take control of their hospitals

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