Prehistoric Man & Medicine
TREPHINNING - cutting a small circular hole into a person's skull so as to release an evil spirit; used to cure headaches and epileptic fits. Performed by a Shaman/Witch Doctor
CAVE PAINTINGS - show Witch Doctors/ Shamans and ritualistic sacrifices; shows they had a religion, may have had something to do with their medicine?
WOUNDS - covered open wounds with mud to seal it off from air; like a prehistoric bandaid
FEVERS - treated by steaming themselves by a fire.
Prehistoric Man & Medicine Continued
BROKEN BONES - encased in mud/clay to set it and let it heal; prehistoric casts
STOMACHACHE - cured via ingesting plant/herb bulbs
HOMO SAPIENS (modern man) different to HOMO NEANTHERTHALIS (prehistoric man)
FUNERALS - buried their dead; shows civilisation and development in society.
Ancient Egyptians & Medicine
CODE OF HYGIENE - used scented oils; washed day and night; had Gnat nets (to stop infection of Malaria)
NOT NOMADIC - lived by Nile; source of food (fish, crops); had farming/agriculture
HAD - farmers; doctors/physicians/priests; builders
DEVELOPED CIVILISATION - built cities, temples, dams tombs etc.
PLUMBING - for the rich and important; basic plumbing and bathrooms.
Ancient Egyptians & Medicine Continued
EMBALMING PROCESS - Canopic Jars (to store internal organs); later organs left in body; brains removed via nose; no medical research (against religion and too hot)
WRITTEN LANGUAGE - Hieroglyphics; papyrus scrolls (records of medical methods)
GODS & GODDESSES - Anubis (God of the Dead); Imhotep (God of Healing and Art of Medicine); Selket (Goddess who helped women in child birth) etc.
IRRIGATION METHODS - to maximize crop yields around the Nile, used irrigation to spread the water further.
The Greeks & Medicine
ASCLEPIOS - legendary hero turned God who was the God of healing to Greeks
PANACEA & HYGIEA - Aclepios' daughters who helped heal mortals; Hygiea is origins of word 'Hygiene'
FOUR HUMOURS - basic elements; earth, air, fire, water; relate to 4 liquids in body; blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile; linked to seasons
HIPPOCRATIC OATH - taken by doctors; is a code of conduct/behaviour for doctors.
The Greeks & Medicine Continued
HIPPOCRATES - Father of Medicine; born 460 BC on Island of Cos; first to develop clinical observation and link symptoms with infections
HEALTH PROGRAMMES - had Stadias, Gyms, Boys were trained, and the Hippocratic Collection of 60 books which documented many aspects of anatomy (of animals; against Greek religion to dissect humans)
NATURAL REMEDIES - used soup, honey, bleeding cups etc.
HEROPHILUS - Greek doctor who dissected animals in public; discovered the brain controlled all movement in body.
The Romans & Medicine
POWERFUL CIVILISATION - most powerful civilisation EVER; interested in Greek buildings (arcitecture), sports and ideas
PRACTICAL - built roads for transport; aquaducts for clean water; sewers to remove dirty water; bridges to cross rivers etc.
DRAINAGE SYSTEM - had Public Latrines (144 flushable latrines in Rome; 315 A.D)
ENGINEERING - built aquaducts to transport huge amounts of water to cities (220 million gallons); a feat of engineering.
The Romans & Medicine Continued
MARSHES - tried to not build near marshes; saw that illness was common near them; drained them if existing settlements were nearby
PUBLIC BATHES - open from 1pm to dusk; cost 1 quadron (16th of a penny); for any and all to use to clean themselves in fresh water
JULIUS FRONTIUS - water commissioner for Rome; responsible for water (aquaducts, sewers)
MINERAL (NATURAL) SPRINGS - built near or next to; army barracks because water supply better and healthier
SETTLEMENTS - chosen carefully depending on geography of land
DOCTORS - Greek doctors went to the Rome; worked in Roman Empire; not really trusted by Romans.