History GCSE

  • Created by: TCadman
  • Created on: 11-04-18 17:59
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  • Key Statistics
    • Conflict and Tension in Asia 1950-1975
      • Development of the Korean War
      • Causes of the Korean War
        • USA and USSR were in cold war
        • Truman Doctrine - USA would help countries threatened by comunism
        • USA put $2 Bn to help Chinese nationalists. 1949 - china became communist
        • Japan used to rule, then when yielded in 1945, Korea was split along the 38th parrallel.
        • South - Syngman Rhee
          • North - Kim Il Sung
        • 1950 - North Korea invaded South - Except Pusan
          • USA got UN to support south. they could because china was blocked in 1949.
            • 18 Countries provided troops
            • UN forces landed in Inchon - south Korea pushed from Pusan
              • Pushed back to Yalu river - Mao Zedong warned them...
                • October 1950 - 200,000 People's Volunteers pushed UN back, tanks USSR
                  • Jan 1951, driven out of Seoul
                    • UN retook Seoul, pushed volunteers back to 38th parrallel
                      • Development of the Korean War
                      • MacArthur Wanted to go further, Truman wanted to Contain. MacArthur Fired - April 1951.
      • Ending the Korean War
        • Never Unified.
        • Peace talks - June 1951, 1952
        • Stalin Died March 1953
        • UN
          • Demonstrated Effectiveness over predecessor
          • Only able to act because USSR was bye bye
        • USA
          • Lost 30,000 Troops
          • Proved Containment Worked
          • Millitary Spending from $12 Bn to $60 Bn
        • China
          • Demonstrated it was a world superpower.
          • Closer with USSR
          • Had Korea as Buffer state
          • 500,000 casualtes
          • Trade with USA died
        • USSR
          • Lost tanks and stuff
          • Had aa Communist north Korea
        • Korea
          • 1.3 Mn casusalties
          • Industry and Agriculture Destroyed
          • Korea wasn't united, melts
        • No clear winners
        • SEATO 1954 - anti commy
        • Untitled
      • The end of French war in Vietnam
        • Viet Minh - Ho Chi Minh, anti-french
          • Formed National Liberation Front to fight Diem. AKA Viet Cong
          • 20,000 Viet Cong in south Nam
          • 1960s 100,000 troops and controlled parts of South nam
        • 1945 Viet Minh tried to take over Hanoi.
        • 9 Yrs of war
        • $500 Mn per yr from US to France for Nam
        • Dien Bien Phu - france lost big time, 8,000 troops killed. France ran away 1954
        • Geneva Agreement - Split nam into north and south over 19th parallel.
        • Meant to be a democratic election in 1956
        • South nam leader was President Diem from 1954. - evil dictator man.
          • Bullied Buddhists
          • Killed by his won troops in 1963
      • Increasing US involvement in Vietnam
        • Eisenhower 1953 - 60 Wanted to stop the spread of Com in Nam
          • He sent $1.6 Bn to south Nam 1954-60
        • Johnson
          • August 1964 - Gold of Tonkin Incident
            • Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution - allowed him to "take all necessary measures"
          • 1965 - Operation Rolling Thunder
          • March 1865 3,500 US marines landed in Da Nang
        • Kennedy 1961 - 63
          • sent 11,000 US advisors.
          • Strategic Hamlets and stuff.
      • War  in Vietnam under Johnson
        • North Vietnam - Guerrilla Warfare
          • Soldiers had no uniform or base, they were indistinguishable from local civilians.
          • Booby traps:    - Bamboo spike pits - explosives like Bouncing Betty
            • 11% of US casualties were from traps.
          • 51% of US casualties were from ambushes
          • Us were unpopular with the locals because of strategic hamlets and stuff.  Viet Cong helped civilians
            • They could be ruthless though, they killed 27,000 civs for working with the government.
          • 4,000 Vietnamese worked to keep the Ho Chi Minh trail running.
          • Fire fights, close combat ambushes, prevented US airstrikes.
          • Tunnel complexes, hard to be hit by airstrikes, hidden, hard to raid.
        • US tactics
          • Bombing runs - They targeted towns and the Trail, they were not very effective.
          • Search and Destroy - My Lai Massacre was a s&d mission gone wrong where 400 civs were killed. 1968
          • $400,000 per viet cong
          • 14,000 Us planes/helicopters were shot down.
          • US problems
            • 14,000 Us planes/helicopters were shot down.
            • The US couldn't launch attacks into neighboring countries such as Laos/Cambodia
            • from 1967 more Americans were drafted - 500,000 deserters.
            • Fragging - troops killing their own offisers because of low morale
            • they lost the support of the locals because of their destructive tactics.
      • Nixon and Vietnamisation
        • 1968 tet offensive against 100 cities
          • 10,000 Viet Cong Killed.
          • People at home questioned the war because the communists launched this big of an attack
        • Paris Peace Talks May 1968.
        • Nixon - Peace with honour
        • Vitenamisation
          • Obv wouldn't work
          • sept 1969 Secret peace talks.
          • 25,000 troops withdrew June 1969, 35,000 sept
        • Nixon didnt want to look weak, so he ordered troops to invade Cambodia
        • Us supported Loas invasion
        • 400,000 troops withdrawn by 1971.
        • bombing increased in -1971- operation linebacker
      • Opposition to the Vietnam war
        • Military Assistance Command, Vietnam - allowed the media provisional access to show stuff.
          • Known as the first Media war
          • 1964 - 1968 only 3 journalists had their licences revoked.
        • From 1967 the reporting was negative
          • New lightweight cameras meant war zones could be filmed showing America the badness of war
          • Walter Chronkite Called the war unwinnable - 1968
            • WalPresident Joshnson said he lost the support of the aveerage American
      • The end of the war Nam
        • 2 yrs after USA  left, SV fell.
        • Nixon Watergate scandal
        • Saigon Captured in April 1975.
        • 5 mn VN forced out of homes.
        • 50,000 boat people killed escaping.
        • Agent Orange killed environment
        • Soldiers Struggled to settle back in.
        • Drug abuse and PTSD in soldiers
    • Elizabethan England 1568-1603
      • Elizabeth's character and court life
        • Ruled from 45 yrs from 1558 - 1603
        • Mother Anne Boleyn, bro Edward, sis Mary
        • Cecil - Chief minister.
        • Dudley - noble, Elizabeth's favourite.
        • Walsingham - Spy Master
      • Elizabeth and Parliment
        • Suitors for her were:
          • Robert Dudley - UK
          • King Philip - spain
          • Duke Francis - France
        • 1601 - Earl of Essex rebellion
        • Northern Rebellion 1569
      • The Elizabethan "Golden age"
        • Gentry became richer and more powerful.
        • Great Rebuilding because showed power.
        • Theaters became popular after the law in 1572 to licenced actors
          • Globe was built in 1599, the first built in 1576.
          • Puritans didn't like theatre because it was associated with paganism
      • Poverty: attitudes and responses
        • 1/2 of England's population was labouring poor.
        • 80% of Labouring Poor's income was spend on food and drink.
        • Pop grew by 43% from 1550 to 1600
        • 1601 Poor law - Almshouse for deserving poor. House of correction - Undeserving poor..
      • English Sailors
        • Drake circumnavigated world, cousin was Hawkins
        • Drake Circumnavigated in 1577-80
        • Drake Returned with £ 200,000,000
          • Became vice admiral.
        • east Indian Company set up in 1601
      • Religeon
        • May 1559 act of supremacy and act of uniformity.
        • Religious settlement know as the middle way
        • Arch Bishop of Canterbury lost job because didn't close down puritan meeting prophesying
        • Will Stubbs hand cut off for criticising queens response
        • 1568 Mary, Queen of Scotts came to England
        • 1568 Seminary set up to train missionary priests
        • Northern Rebellion 5000 Rebels. Northumberland was executed and 500 rebels/.
        • Papal Bull - 1570
      • Mary Queen of Scotts
        • May 1568 She fled to Cumberland, after allegations she killed her husband..
        • Pope Excommunicated Elizabeth
        • Ridolfi Plot 1571.
        • Babington Plot 1585 led to her execution.
        • Executed in February 1587
      • Spanish Armarda
        • Caused because of Mary Queen of Scotts death
        • 130 Ships left Spain in July 1588.
        • 60 Ships returned.
        • Battle of Gravelines
          • 1000 Spanish killed, 8000 wounded, 50 English killed.
        • Armarda Portrait was propoganda after the wart.
      • Harwick Hall
        • "Hardwick Hall More glass than wall"
    • Health and the people
      • Medieval
        • Medicine
          • Doctrine Of Signatures - said god created illness, guided doctors.
          • Zodiac Charts dictated treatment and operation times.
          • Doctors used urine charts
          • Hippocrates - stressed clinical observation. Theory of 4 humours.
            • Bloodletting.
          • Galen - dissected animals, believed we had the same anatomy as pigs.
            • Church supported because design theory.
          • People believed god sent illness
          • Church banned human dissection.
            • Roger Bacon Imprisoned for advocating scientific research.
          • Islamic medicine.
            • Avicenna - cannon of medicine.
            • Islamic hospitals trained people.
          • Warfare
            • Arrow cup - removes arrows.
            • Improved Ointments -  Arderns painkillers.
        • Public health
          • raising taxes was unpopular.
          • Bath houses were available to those who could afford them.
          • Monasteries
            • Kitchens separated from privies
            • Planned water supply
            • Bathing was compulsory
          • Black Death 1348-49
            • Beliefs were - astrology, punishment from god, minority groups (Jews poisoned water), miasma
            • Flagellants whipped themselves to not get the plauge.
            • King and bishops left London.
      • Renaissance
        • Key People
          • Vesalius - anatomy
            • 1543 - De Humani Corporis Fabrica
          • Pare - surgery
            • Used Ligatures instead of cauterisation
            • 1575 Les Oeuvres
          • Harvey - Circulatory system
            • Doctor to king James  1 and Charles 1
        • Printing press invented - new ideas spread quickly
        • Great Plague 1665
          • Plague doctors.
          • Watchmen - quarantined houses.
          • People Prayed- religion less prominent.
        • More hospitals
          • 1741 Thomas Coram opened a children's hospital.
        • John Hunter encouraged practitioners medical observation and experimentation.
        • Edward Jenner
          • Inoculation - risky and unreliable
            • 1721 - Lady Montague made it fashionable.
          • 1798 Published findings
            • 1802 - $10,000 grant.
              • 1853 - Vaccination compulsory.
      • Industrial Revolution
        • 1861 Pasteur germ theory.
          • Koch specified bacteria by staining them.
            • Ehrlich - 1910 First magic bullet.
              • Magic bullet targeted specific germs
        • New inventions
          • X-ray - 1895
          • Stethoscope - 1816
        • 1847 Simpson developed anaesthetics.
          • Used chloroform instead of ether.
          • Queen Victoria used it in childbirth 1853 and it became mainstream.
          • 1870 stopped using because did not reduce mortality rates.
        • Lister used antiseptic in 1867
        • 1854 - snow proved cholera was caused by infected water
        • Reforms
          • 1848 - Public Health Act
            • 1875 - Public Health Act, compulsory
          • 1864 - Factory Act
          • 1866 - sanitary Act
          • 1875 Food and Drug act
      • Modern
        • 1928 - Fleming discovered properties of pencillin
          • 1937 Florey and Chain researched penicillin
            • 1941 - tested on human. used in WW2 1942
              • Pharmaceutical industry booming after 1945
        • WW1 mobile x-ray and blood transfusions
        • Keyhole surgery and laser techniques make operations easier.
        • 1961 First pacemaker.
    • America, 1920-1973
      • The Economic Boom
        • 1927 - 1 car per 10 secs
        • 1923 - Ford created moving assembly line
      • Social and cultural developments in the 1920s
        • 1920s - 11.1% wage increase
        • 1929 - 10 million women in work 24% increase
        • 1921 - 1 radio station... 1922 508 radio stations
        • Jazz and flappers
        • Women could vote - 1920
      • A divided society
        • Racial Tension
        • Prohibition
          • Temperance movement - Christian anti-alcohol group
          • Banned -Volstead Act 1920
          • Speakeasies -Illegal bars
          • Bootleggers - smuggled alcohol
          • Chicago - 130 murderers - no arrest - 1927-8
          • St Valentine's Day massacre - 1929
            • Prohibition Repealed in 1933
      • American Society and the Depression
        • 1929 Stock Market Carsh
        • 1931 - 238 people hospitalised for malnutrition
        • Food demand $10 B - $3 B 1929 - 1932
        • Hoover -> Roosevelt in 1932 by 7 M
      • The New Deal
        • Federal Emergency Relief Admin
        • AAA
        • HOLC - helped 20% of Americans mortgages.
        • CCC  - 2.5 M young men work
        • NRA
      • The impact of the Second World War
        • Recovered from Depression
        • Lend lease - send weapons to American Allies. $10 B
        • General Motors +750,000 new workers
        • US army 1M Af Americans
        • 35 - 50 % 1941 - 1944 women in work
      • Post-War Society
        • Av earning 3X UK
        • 1948 >1% of homes owned TV 10 y later 83%
        • Rebel Without A Cause James Dean
        • McCarthyism
      • Civil Rights Campaigns
        • 1955 Rosa Parks
        • Brown V board of education
        • Buss boycott 65% decrease
        • Jim Crow Laws Removed
        • Malcom X nation of Islam
        • 200,000 B 50,000 W attended March on Washington 1963
        • Civil rights act 1964 and 1968
        • Votinh Rights act 1965
      • The Great Society
        • JFK New Frontier 1961 -1963
          • Increased min wage
        • Johnson Great society 1963 - 1969
          • Medicare
        • Women Equal Rights
          • NOW
          • 1963 Equal pay act
          • 1973 Roe V Wade abort legal

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