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  • Why is shape so important
    • Proteins
      • it is important as it can make many complex shapes and each shapes can have different functions
        • for example you wouldnt be able to make collagen which means damaged skin wouldnt be able to repair itself as efficiently if not at all
      • The structural levels of proteins are very important because with the 3 dimensional structure that it has enzyme substrate complexes would be impossible - the substrate would not fit the active site leading to no enzymes which are extremely important in everyday life
        • for example in making food, if there were no enzymes then the food would become rotten earlier, make it more expensive to make and make the quality worse
        • without the tertiary structure the substrate wont fit the active site due to it being so specific with the space that it binds to - without the the induced fit theory would not work and a complimentary enzyme substrate complex would not be formed leading to the reaction not being catalysed
        • inhibitors wouldnt work as they need the specific tertiary active site in which to work - this means some drugs wont work as they only work by inhibiting enzymes e.g. some antibiotics like pencillin inhibits the enzyme transpeptidase which catalyses the formation of proteins in bacterial cell walls which weakens the cell wall and prevents the bacterium from regulating its osmotic pressure as a result the cell burts and the bacterium is killed - if penicillion couldnt inhhibit transpeptidase this process woulodnt be able to happen and the bacterium would still be active - and in extreme cases could lead to death wi
        • transport proteins are able to function mainly due to the structure that they have - they contain hydrophobic heads and hydrophilic amino acids which cause the protein to fold up and form a channel which means ions can across cell membranes without this structure some process wouldn't be able to happen i.e. glucose would not be able to enter the intestinal epithelium by active transport
    • the immune system
      • if the shape of t cells where different they wouldnt be complimentary to the antigens which means the t cells would practically be useless as they wouldnt able to divide and differentiate into different types of t cells would wouldnt help in killing the cell. It also means memory cells couldnt be created
      • if the shapes of the antibodies on the b cells surface were different it would mean it wouldnt be able to meet a complementary shaped antigen so it couldnt bing to it so the b cell effectively wouldnt be activated - so it wouldnt divide by motosis into plasma cells and memory cells
        • this would mean the infection wouldnt be able to get rid of if you caught a bacteria or virus and could lead to alot of people getting ill and as the body cannot defeat the pathogens sometimes death.
    • Shapes also determine whether organ systems work as efficiently as they could do
      • gas - exchange system
        • flicks law
          • if the alveoli were reduced in size - the surface area would decrease - less diffusion
          • thicker lung tissue - longer diffusion pathway - less diffusion
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        • less oxygen leads to less respirations so less energy (ATP) is produced so bodies can become very tired which can make people more susceptible to illnesses
    • it may make structures useless if they were of different shapes - this is especially true when it comes to polysaccharides
      • amylose - if it wasnt unbranches chains of alpha glucose with the angles of glycosidic bonds which give it its coiled structure it would not by compact and good for storage and would not be good at its purpose - storing glucose in plants


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