Problem solving

  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 26-04-15 23:31
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  • Problem Solving
    • Problem: Occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state & a goal & it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle.
      • 1)It is purposeful, goal directed action        2)It does not involve automatic processes, but relies on cognitive processes    3)It is only a ‘problem’ if the solution is not available immediately. 
    • Problem solving as reconstructing: (1) Reproductive thinking: involving re use of previous experience  (2) Productive thinking: involving a novel reconstructing of the problem
      • Stages:       (1) Representing the original problem in the mind     (2) Reorganizing or restructuring the problem to solve it.
    • Problem solving & Insight: Occurs during productive thinking when the problem is suddenly reconstructed & the solution becomes clear.
    • Problem solving as restructuring: •Functional Fixedness - ideas about an objects functions can inhibit the usefulness of an object in another manner.  •Mental set: inability to respond differently to similar problems after using the same stratagy
    • Problem solving as search: Desire to reduce the difference between initial state and goal state.
      • •Initial state (Start condition of a problem) •Goal state (End condition of a problem) •Intermediate states (Conditions that exist along the way from start to end) •Operators (Possible moves that can be made to get from one state to another)
    • Analogical Problem solving:  •Analogy: occur when there are parallels between two different situations  •Analogical problem solving is a way to restructure a problem in a parallel fashion
      • Three steps to understand analogy between problems:     (1) Noticing the analogous relationship (2) Mapping the correspondance between source & target problems     (3) Applying the mapping to generate a parallel solution


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