Music tech soul revision

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  • Motown
    • Motown's signature production feature is the wall of sound
    • Songs produced here were easier to listen too
      • Softer timbers and vocals
    • Songs contained tame lyrical content
    • Created commercially viable music suitable for all audience's
      • Motown Wall of Sound
        • Live recordings
        • Doubling instruments such as guitars and bass
        • Creating a reverberant echoed sound by using reverb chambers
        • Stereo mixes with extreme panning this is unconventional by today's standard e.g all drums and bass on the left all vocals and other instruments on the right.
    • Soul Music
      • Stax
        • Unlike Motown, Stax were less interested in creating music for mass appeal.
        • Songs at Stax had a harder edge, with more prominent and syncopated rhythm sections
        • The vocals differed, they were more aggressive sporting gospel influenced vocals
        • Booker T and the MG's were Stax's in house band. They were characterised by using the Hammond Organ
        • Stax's production features gave the recordings dryer, cleaner and of higher quality.
          • Characterised as 'Clean tight arrangements
        • Stax embraced the civil rights movements
      • Technologies and production of soul
        • Early adoption of multi-track machines, 4-track the 8-track
        • live recording of a complete band in a single room with acoustic screens to provide separation
        • Use of DI guitars and basses
        • Close mic recording of drums
        • vocal overdubbing
        • High quality recordings with clear vocals
        • Use of electric guitar instruments, organs and synthesizes
      • Soul music instrumentation
        • Vocals and backing vocals
        • Electric guitars
        • Piano/ Organ
        • Bass
        • Percussion
        • Drum Kit
        • prominent horn  section
        • Performance and arrangement
          • Large ensembles with a lot of the instruments being doubled
          • Emotional vocal delivery. This ranged from forceful and high energy to sad, reflective and passionate
          • Driving rhythm with drums and percussion giving a steady backbeat on beats 2 and 4
            • Rhythmic chordal parts on piano and guitar
            • Typically brisk tempo around 120 bpm or faster
            • some slower tempo ballads
            • Strong use of vocal and instrumental hooks
            • Use of call and response
          • Rhythmic, riff-based bass line
          • Melodies often using a pentatonic scale with additional blues notes
      • Influences
        • R&B
        • Gospel
        • Jazz
    • A reverberant echoey sound
    • Motown was not apart of the civil rights movement.
      • This is because its commercial interests dependent on sales in the white community


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