Perspectives on Ownership

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  • Created by: 11DJ
  • Created on: 20-01-18 13:59
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  • Perspectives on Ownership
    • Pluralist
      • Audience are in control due to their demands
      • Representative democracies
      • Pressure groups
      • Electorate
      • No-one group is dominant
      • BBC is funded by licence fee
        • They should be unbiased
      • Infotainment
        • Gossip and celebrities are part of the news
          • e.g. celebrities gain columns
      • Advertising revenue
        • Focus on purchasing power of mass audience
          • The larger the audience, the higher the fees
    • Marxist
      • Role of Ideology
        • Mass media is a special institution that transmits and controls ideology
        • Argue that there is a dominant ideology, akin to a dominant class
        • Traditional Marxists argue that media is controlled by the ruling class
      • Marcuse
        • Media owners play a key role in helping to control the working class through a 'bread and circuses' approach
        • They delibrately make sure media output is entertainment to keep people docile
      • Turnstall and Palmer
        • Governments are no longer interested in controlling the activities of media owners because interests of media owners and political elite overlap
        • Silvio Berlusconi owned 3 TV channels with an audience of 40% of Italian population
          • Used media to win election
    • Hegemonic Marxist
      • Glasgow University Media Group (GUMG)
        • Media reflects ideas of ruling class
        • Media professionals subconciously control the content of media
        • 50% of top 100 UK journaliists were educated at private schools
      • Economic pressure
        • Aim to not 'rock the boat ' too keep profit
        • Play safe rather than take a risk, jobs may be at risk
      • Jones
        • Media owners and journalists are part of the "establishment", who are accoundtable
        • Bound together by economic interests
        • Protect dominant position
        • Doesn't threaten interests
        • Media should scrutinise the "establishment"
      • Positives
        • Recognises owners are not involved in day-to-day running
        • Media managers, editors and journalists have some professional independence and not completely controlled by owners
        • There is a range of media content to attract media audiences, some of it critical of the dominant ideology
      • Negatives
        • Generalised - putting people into boxes - oversimplified
        • Assumes audience is passive and underestimates power of them
        • No clear meaning of hegemonic ideology
    • Post-Modernist
      • Post-modernist societies are media saturated
      • Underpinned by globalisation
        • e.g. More consumer choice
      • No such thing as absolute truth
        • People become cynical
      • Boudrillard
        • Hyperreality
          • We are so immersed in media that it is hard to distinguish real life and media version of reality
      • Trowler
        • Media messages are polysemic
          • Interpreted in a variety of ways
        • One message cannot be more powerful than another
      • Distinction between producers and consumers has become less clear cut
        • New media allows us to create our own media
        • No longer in hands of corporations
      • If there are multiple interpretations, knowledge is more fluid as opposed to being concentrated
      • Levene
        • Members of society now have a greater choice in their access to media
      • Negatives
        • Often not based on research
        • More choice may just mean more of the same
        • Ignores the overwhelming evidence of structural inequalities in wealth and power relations in ownership

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