Marxism - Structuralist - Conflict Perspective
Marco Approach - Social System Perspective
- Structuralist Perspective
How is Society Constructed?
- Society is consists of The Infrastructure and The Superstructure:
- Infrastructure = is the economic base that's made up by the Means Of Production. (Capitalism is the mode of production of current society.)
- Superstructure = supported through the economic base which shapes all Social Institution's. (Education System)
Social Change - Marxism
What causes Social Change?
- Occurs through the developments and changes in the Means Of Production ---> which leads to changes in the Force Of Production. (Factories)
- Feudalism - capitalism is based on Bourgeoisie's ( Owning M.O.P) and Proletariat ( Selling Labour).
- Social change = results of conflict interests between opposing social classes.
To what extent is society based on Conflict or Consensus?
Karl Marx = Society is characterised by Conflict
- Two social classes : Bourgeoisie's/Proletariat
Bourgeoisie's : Profit is made through the exploitation's of the proletariat's.
Due to false consciousness and exploitations from the upper class, society's working class aren't aware of these circumstances therefore accept the situations without realising. (Ideology)
How can we explain Social Inequality?
Social Inequality = can be explained through the Hierarchical structure in society.
- Means Of Production = Power to exploit proletariat's. (Whom sell their labours to)
-Proletariat's are socialised into accepting these situations.
Example : Through the Education system : Hidden Curriculum.
Essentially social inequality is legitimised through the role of Superstructure.
Individuals and Society
What is the relationship between the Individual and Society?
- Individuals are shaped by the social structure.
Karl Marx = argues economy shapes the human beings and the way they organise social life. ( Infrastructure dictates the Superstructure.)
Feudal Economy influences other Social Institutions : Family/Religion
- Religion = Acceptances of their situation and hierarchy position is given by God.
- Capitalist economy affects individuals by through promoting value competitions.
Purpose of Sociological Study
What is the Primary Purpose of Sociological study?
Karl Marx = - Main purpose is to discover the laws that govern human behaviour.
- Through these discovered laws it ables you to predict about the future.
Marx's interests was to Improving society and be organised in a better way. Such as the Communist way.
It's essential to uncover the way societies change to promote conditions for the social change taken place.
Evaluation - Strengths
- Recognise importance's of economy and the changes that can influence a wide range of social institutions.
- Focus on private ownership giving an explanation of Means Of Production for extreme social inequalities in wealth,income and power.
- Recognise the importance's of Society's Social Structure, link it to ideas of consciousness and behaviour of individuals and groups.
- Highly influential theory that has a significant influence on a range of social theories such as Weber and Marxist Feminist.
Evaluation - Weakness
- Two-class model of inequality is adequate, a new middle class has imem