Plots & Revolts At Home

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  • Plots & Revolts At Home
    • The Revolt of the Northern Earls - 1569
      • The majority of people living in the North remained loyal to Catholicism.
        • The Earls & their followers wanted a Catholic England.
      • The Earls had lost much of their influence at court - they resented the new men (RD, JF, WC)
      • Uncertainty about an heir or marriage.
      • Rebels
        • Earl of Westmorland i.e Charles Neville
        • Earl of Northumberland i.e Thomas Percy
        • Duke of Norfolk i.e Thomas Howard who planned to marry MQofS
        • Their wives encouraged them.
      • RD told Elizabeth of the plot, leading to Norfolk's imprisonment in the Tower.
      • Took control of Durham Cathedral, celebrating mass.
      • Support from Spain never arrived.
      • Many (Northern) landowners did not support the revolt - remaining loyal & did not risk losing wealth.
      • Showed MQofS could not be trusted - remained in prison.
      • Pope excommunicated Elizabeth in 1570.
      • Her control over the North was strengthened.
    • Ridolfi Plot - 1571
      • Roberto Ridolfi was an Italian banker who lived in England & worked as a spy for the Pope.
      • Plans were similar to the RoftNE but aimed to kill Elizabeth.
      • Ridolfi travelled to TN to discuss plot with Pope, Phillip II & the Duke of Alba.
      • Phillip II instructed DofA (Governor of TN) to prepare 10,000 troops
      • SWC discovered the plot proving the DofN was guilty of high treason.
      • By June 1572 he was sentenced to death, many MP demanded MQofS death too but did not due to her moral code of the 'Anointed Monarch'
      • Executing Mary would anger Catholics & possibly unite two big Catholic monarchies - FRANCE & SPAIN.
      • The government now began to monitor Catholics more closely, treating them more severely
    • Throckmorton Plot - 1583
      • Duke of Guise, Mary's cousin.
      • Phillip II & Pope offered support / money.
      • SFW, E's Secretary of State, discovered the plot.
      • Francis Throckmorton's house revealed papers showing his part in the conspiracy. Executed in May 1584.
      • T's papers revealed a list of Catholic conspirators.
      • 1585 Act - Made helping or sheltering Priests a capital punishment.
    • Babington Plot - 1586
      • Phillip II & Pope support
      • DofG would invade, murder E & put MQoS on the throne.
      • Anthony Babington wrote to Mary about the conspiracy.
      • SFW intercepted & read Babington's letters to Mary
      • Babington & plotters were hanged, drawn & quartered.
      • 1587, Mary was executed
      • By 1585, Spain & England were virtually at war.
    • The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots - 1587
      • Mary was involved in all 4 plots.
      • The Act for the Queen's Safety provided for the trial and death or exclusion from the succession of anyone involved in an invasion, rebellion, or plot against the Queen - 1584
      • Mary had a Catholic heir, threatening Protestant succession.
      • Rumours of invasion from Spain.
      • Mary was an anointed monarch, making Elizabeth and heir heirs more vulnerable in the future.
      • Removed threat to Elizabeth as no one would replace her.
      • Increased chances of a civil war on her death.
    • Walsingham's Spies
      • Provided intellginece, defeating two plots
      • Deterred further plots.
      • Some agents were paid & trained.
      • Network in every town.
      • Spies abroad - Spain, France, Germany, Italy, North Africa.
      • Used ciphers (codes) in all messages.
      • Used torture & execution for serious cases.

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