PERSONALITY FACOTRS IN ANOMALOUS BELIEF

mind map of peronality facotrs in anomalous belief. - mind maps are cramped so they can be pinted on A3

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  • Created by: alice
  • Created on: 16-12-12 10:25
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  • PERSONALITY FACTORS
    • Eysenck's Personality Factors
      • Eysenck (1967) proposed a biologically based theory of personality based on 3 dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism
      • Extraversion
        • Extraversion is high in people who seek extra stimulation to increase brain arousal levels
        • Peltzer (2002) ---found that extraversion was associated with paranormal belief and neuroticism and psychoticism were not
        • Honorton et al.. (1992) ---conducted a meta-analysis of 60 published studies relation to ESP performance. Found an overall positive correlation
          • An explanation is that extraverts respond better to new stimuli than introverts and therefore are more open to paranormal experiences, increasing their belief
      • Neuroticism
        • The tendancy to experience negative rather than positive emotional states, such as anger and depression
          • Paranormal belief may be used as a defense mechanism to create distance from reality and reduce such negative states
        • Williams et al. (2007) ---tested nearly 300 Welsh school children. Found a significant correlation (+.32) between paranormal belief and neuroticism. No correlation was found between paranormal belief and extraversion
        • Watson and Watt (2004) ---focused on just a sub-scale of the PBS. Found that neuroticism only related to certain paranormal beliefs (bad-luck superstitions).
          • The mechanism underlying belief in good luck superstition is more likely to promote optimism, unlike bad superstitions which cause negative emotional states
      • Psychoticism
        • Francis et al. (2010) tested 20,000 UK children aged 13-15. Found that high psychoticism did correlate with unconventional paranormal beliefs, such as PK and astrology. Didn't correlate with traditional religious beliefs
    • A More Imaginative Personality
      • Fantasy Proneness
        • The tendency to become so deeply absorbed in something it feels as if it's actually happening
        • Dixon et al (1996) ---found a link between paranormal belief and mental imagination
        • Wiseman et al (2003) ---showed hoe becoming way involved in a task may enable people to overlook facts. Researchers set up a 'mock' seance, everyone was aware it wasn't real and people acted as if it was. During, 1 actor suggested that the table was levitating
          • After, more sheep than goats reported the table moving suggesting it was their deep absorption that led them to believe despite knowing it was fake
      • Suggestibility
        • Suggestable people respond better to hypnotists's suggestions -more easily hypnotised
        • Hergovich (2003) ---proposed that suggestibility might be linked to paranormal belief/experience as at least some paranormal phenomena are the result of deception
          • Found a positive correlation between suggestibility and score on a paranormal belief scale
      • Creative Personality
        • Thalbourne (2001) ---conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies. All found a correlation between creative personality and paranormal belief
    • Psychopathological or Filling Need?
      • Mental Illness
        • Some personality factors linked to paranormal belief are characteristic of mental illnesses. E.g. schizotypy and an element of schizophrenia
        • Schizotypy isn't a surprising link as a characteristic given is 'having magical or superstitious belief and interpretation of events'
          • May be inevitable that people with paranormal belief would score on schizotypy (Bentall et al 1989)
        • Tobacyk and Milford (1987) ---found a link with narcissism and paranormal belief
      • Psychological Need
        • French and Kerman (1996) ---found a relationship between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness and paranormal belief
        • Watt et al. (2007) ---demonstrated a negative correlation between perceived control in childhood and paranormal belief
        • Auton et al. (2003) ---examined the personality traits in goats and sheep and found no difference in traits considered to be pathological. Concluded paranormal belief isn't indicative of psychopathology
        • Some research shows positives: Clarke (1993) ---found a positive correlation between belief and self-actualisation
    • Locus of Control
      • An external locus of control is believing that life circumstances are controlled more by factors outside themselves rather than internal control where it's down to you
      • Allen and Lester (1994) ---showed a correlation between external locus of control and paranormal belief
      • Maybe only some forms of psi phenomena correlate positively with an external locus of control (e.g. spiritualism) and others negatively (e.g. PK) - Wolfradt (1997)
        • May explain why studies such as Davis and Kirkby (1985) have found a positive correlation between paranormal belief and internality
      • Groth-Marnat and Pegden (1998) ---found that greater external locus of control, was associated with spirituality and precognition. Internality was associated with superstition
    • Other Factors
      • Hergovich (2003) ---found a positive correlation between field dependance and paranormal belief. Possibly because such people rely less on detail
      • Kurmar et al. (1993) ---found that people with higher sensation seeking personality scores had higher ratings for belief in paranormal and reported more experiences
        • Groth-Marnat and Pegden (1998) ---found no link between sensation seeking and PBS scores
      • Gow et al. (2004) ---linked dissociation to paranormal belief.
        • Dissociation refers to a separation of thoughts, feelings and experiences into separate streams of consciousness
    • Schizotypy
      • Irwin and Green (1999) ---found people who display schizotypy have a greater tendency to have paranormal belief
      • Scizotypy describes a continuum of personality characteristics ranging from normal dissociation between reality and imagination, at one end, to psychosis and schizophrenia at the other
      • Mental Illness
        • Some personality factors linked to paranormal belief are characteristic of mental illnesses. E.g. schizotypy and an element of schizophrenia
        • Schizotypy isn't a surprising link as a characteristic given is 'having magical or superstitious belief and interpretation of events'
          • May be inevitable that people with paranormal belief would score on schizotypy (Bentall et al 1989)
        • Tobacyk and Milford (1987) ---found a link with narcissism and paranormal belief
    • Good and Bad Superstitions
      • Wiseman and Watt (2004) ---noted that the correlations are just with the sub-scale of superstition and not the full range of beliefs
        • Also, the questions used in the PBS to asses belief in superstition are related to negative not positive superstition
      • Wiseman and Watt ---conducted an internet -based study and received over 4,000 responses. Questionnaire involving both good and bad luck. Found a stronger link between neuroticism and negative superstition than with positive
        • Suggesting that previous research may lack validity because of the way paranormal belief is assessed
  • Schizotypy
    • Irwin and Green (1999) ---found people who display schizotypy have a greater tendency to have paranormal belief
    • Scizotypy describes a continuum of personality characteristics ranging from normal dissociation between reality and imagination, at one end, to psychosis and schizophrenia at the other

Comments

Megan

Hello,

Its a bit difficult to read with so much information in one mind map.

Thank You,

Megan (moderator)

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