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This document contains three replacement spreads.
If you view the pdf display two pages at a time you will see them as one spread.


Replacement for pages 266-267

Changes to specification:
NEW SPREAD: Deception and self-
The psychology of deception and deception removed. Probability
self-deception The role of judgments added.…

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This replaces pages 262-263




COINCIDENCE AND PROBABILITY JUDGEMENTS
A t the beginning of this chapter we considered evidence for anomalous experiences. Now
w e are going to put aside the question of whether anomalous experiences are real or not,
a nd consider why some people have anomalous experiences a nd…

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What is it that
separates the sheep VALIDITY OF RESEARCH
(believers) from the goats
(nonbelievers)? Are they All of the research reported here depends on two measures ­ (1) a
less intelligent? Are they measure of belief in the paranormal and (2) a measure of the target
worse at probability…

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This replaces pages 264-265




SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOUR AND MAGICAL THINKING
S uperstition and magical thinking may be the core cognitions that drive
paranormal beliefs, according to Lindeman and Aarnio (2007). They are both
examples of irrational thinking where a causal relationship has been assumed
between events that are merely correlated, for…

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COMMENTARY
B ehaviourist explanation ­ Skinner's study (right) proposes a SKINNER'S SUPERSTITIOUS PIGEONS
theory of accidental learning to explain superstition. However this One of Skinner's most
explanation has been challenged. Staddon and Simmelhag (1971) entertaining experiments
repeated the study and observed similar ritual behaviours but they demonstrated how
realised that…

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This replaces pages 266-267




PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ANOMALOUS EXPERIENCE
O n the previous two spreads we have considered why some people have anomalous
e xpe
e riences whereas others do not ­ how we deal with coincidence and probability Anomalous experience and belief.
judgements, preferences for superstitious behaviour r and…

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PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL OR FILLING A NEED?
Paranormal beliefs may serve a psychological function ­ Irwin and Watt
(2007) call this the psychodynamic functions hypothesis. The question is
whether the psychological function is a symptom of an underlying
disease/maladjustment (i.e. psychopathological) or is within the normal
spectrum and merely fulfilling a psychological…

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New references
Auton, H., Pope, J. and Seeger, G. (2003). It isn't that strange: Paranormal belief and personality traits. Social
Behavior and Personality, 7, 711-720.
Blackmore, S. and Troscianko, T. (1985). Belief in the paranormal: Probability judgments, illusory control, and the
`chance baseline shift'. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 455-468.…

Page 9

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Vamos, M. (2010). Organ transplantation and magical thinking' Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry,
44, 883-887.
Watt, C.A., Watson, S. and Wilson, L. (2007). Cognitive and psychological mediators of anxiety: Evidence from a
study of paranormal belief and perceived childhood control. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 335-343.
rd
Weinbeger,…

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Emily

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thank you so much for posting this!! so useful

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