People power- end of the Cold War

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  • 'People Power'
    • Discontent of Eastern Europe
      • Economic
        • reduction in living standards, prices and unemployment increased
        • Due to USSR's cut back on subsidised oil and gas as world prices fell
        • Technology basic compared to US
        • Industrial pollution high
      • Consumerism
        • East Germany, Czechoslovakia,Hungary could receive Western TV signals from West Germany borders
          • People in EE had higher expectations of living standards and wanted consumerist lifestyle
            • Freedom of movement won at Helsinki in 1975
        • Freedom of movement won at Helsinki in 1975
    • Desire for Political reform
      • despite Helsinki Accords being signed in 1975, continued repression in EE
        • dismayed at continued political repression, censorship and human right abuses to maintain power
      • Harliner Honecker- made the Stasi especially repressive
      • Late 1980s Kadar, Husak and Zhivkov were firmly in power and opposition limited
    • European detente
      • EE motivated by human rights and wanted to be treated as citizens like the WEST
      • Basket 3 of Helsinki Accords stated this as their right
        • EE motivated by human rights and wanted to be treated as citizens like the WEST
      • Mitchell (US Historian) 'trojan horse' which would eventually destroy USSR
      • Argued that New thinking policy by Gorbachev was  product of European detente and popular discontent
    • Strong sense of Nationalism
      • an 'empire by rape' created and maintained by force, not consent
      • East German nationalism- desire for reunification and not loyal to USSR
      • Nationalism growing in the Caucasus and Baltic States
      • Forces of Nationalism would have eventually led to break up of the USSR because it structurally lacked legitimacy to maintain
    • Revolutions
      • POLAND
      • HUNGARY
    • Smith- 'ended from below'

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