The End of The Cold War

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  • The End of The Cold War
    • Role of Gorbachev
      • Perestoika, Glasnost and Democrastisation were all part of Gorbachev's policy of 'New Thinking'. Further he ended the Brezhnev Doctrine which encouraged liberalisation and rebellion amongst the communist satellite states. Once he made it clear that he would not intervene, it arguably resulted in the end of the Cold war.
        • The lack of USSR support meant that Communist regimes could no longer rely on the Soviet's for 'muscle power' and thus significantly affected the influence of communist regimes and weakened them.
        • However, certain historians argue that Gorbachev only took these actions because of the military strain and pressure of the Cold War on the USSR. Triumphalists argue that he was ultimately trying to revitalise the economy and provide a clear, political leadership. Not because he wanted to end the Cold War.
    • Role of Reagan
      • Reagan Doctrine was a new 'hard-line' approach. He also increased military spending, SDI was announced in 1983, the aims were to regain US supremacy to the point where the Soviets could no longer keep up. Thus ending the Cold War.
        • However, Reagan Doctrine meant that US sometimes supported fascist regimes simply because they were anti-communist such as in the case of El Salvador.
        • The influence of Reagan's power relied heavily on British co-operation and the support from Margaret Thatcher to use Britain to base missiles.
        • However, it cannot be denied that the US were successful and supreme in their technological and military race. The Soviet economy collapsed and couldn't keep up with the US so arguably, Reagan's policy was effective. The Reagan Doctrine also portrayed the message that the US were willing to take forceful action against communism.
    • People Power
      • The role of People Power resulted in the fall of the Berlin Wall and several Communist regimes.
        • In Poland, 1881, the group Solidarity began to rebel, encouraged by Pope John Paul 2. By 1989, Solidarity came into power and communism ended in Poland. It was a similar story for Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Romania.
        • However, without the ending of the Brezhnev Doctrine, they would arguably have not had to the courage to rebel to the same extent or been permitted to rebel successfully.


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