Causes of Disease - Unit 1 AQA Biology

Biology Unit 1 Chapter 1 from the Nelson Thornes AS Biology textbook - summary of topics

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  • Causes of Disease
    • Pathogens
      • disease = a malfunction of the body or mind which has an adverse effect on good health
      • for microorganisms to be classed as pathogens, they must:
        • gain entry to the hose
        • colonise the tissues of the host
        • resist the defences of the host
        • cause damage to the host tissues
      • bacteria
      • fungi
      • viruses
      • damaging host tissues
      • producing toxins
      • pathogens enter the body through:
        • gas-exchange system
        • digestive system
      • organism that causes disease
    • Data and Disease
      • correlation
        • a change in one of two variables is reflected by a change in the other variable
      • cause
      • looking critically at data
        • right factor measured? right questions asked?
        • how were data gathered? were methods reliable? was the right apparatus used?
        • do those collecting the data have a vested interestest in the outcome of the research?
        • has the study been repeated? are the results and conclusions the same from other people?
        • are there still unanswered questions?
    • Lifestyle and Health
      • risk = the measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard
      • health risk needs a time scale
      • Cancer
        • risk factors:
          • smoking
          • diet
          • obesity
          • physical activity
          • sunlight
      • Coronary heart disease
        • risk factors:
          • smoking
          • high blood pressure
          • blood cholesterol levels
          • obesity
          • diet
          • physical activity
      • reduce the risk of CHD oand cancer - give up smoking/more exercise etc.
      • interpreting graphs
  • mucous layer; production of enzymes; production of stomach acid
    • digestive system
    • gas-exchange system


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