Parasites= 8.27

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  • Created by: adla
  • Created on: 15-03-13 14:59
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  • Parasites- 8.27
    • Parasitology
      • Caused
        • Helminth Worms
        • Protozoa- Unicellular
        • Arthropod- scoropion
      • Examples
        • Harmless
          • Headlice
        • Harmful
          • Malaria
          • Amoebic Dysentry- intestine
    • Helminth
      • Multicellular
      • Don't replicate in the body
      • Repeared infection- Eggs or Larvae
      • Mate- Male to Female or Hermaphrodites
      • Infection- Long duration
      • Parasites of the gut
      • Some worm parasites- live in blood, lymph or tissue
      • Encyst in the tissues
      • Cause- Physical Damage, blood loss and blockage
        • Chronic inflammatory response
          • Schistosomiasis/Filiariasis
            • Severe- Liver Damage and Elephantitis
    • Protozoan Parasites
      • Unicellular
      • Replicate within the body
      • Cause long lasting chronic infections
      • Usually no clearance of the parasite
      • Partial Immunity
        • Control parasite Numbers
        • Control  re-infection
      • Type
        • Blood, Gut or tissue
        • Extracellularor intracellular
      • Malaria- most common global disease
        • Toxoplasmosis
          • Important cause of death in immunocompromised people
    • Arthropods
      • Multicellular
      • Bloodsucking
        • Mosquito
        • Ticks
        • transmit- viral, bactieral, helminth and protist pathogens
        • MIcropredators
          • Only depend on the host for food not the whole life cycle
      • Lice
        • Rely on human host
      • Close contact- transmission
    • Routes of transmission
      • Faecal-ral route
      • Direct invasion of the skin
      • Consumption of meat from infective infections
      • Transmission from bloodsucking insects
      • transplacental
      • Sxually transmited
    • Control  Problems
      • Sanitation
      • lak of control programmes
      • Inc. pop of insect vector
      • Migration
    • Geohelminths
      • nematode worms
      • Foecal-oral transmission
      • Due to poor hygiene and sanitation
      • Examples
        • Human Whipwowm
          • Trichuris
        • Human Roundworm
          • Ascaris
        • Human Hookworms
          • Necator, Ancylostoma
      • Chronic and Ubiquitous
      • Est- Half of pop
      • Effects
        • Growth and development of children
      • Produce thousands of eggs per day
      • Eggs are ingested with contaminated food or water..
      • Go to gut via blood
      • Found in the soil contaiminated with Faeces
    • Schistosomiasis
      • Adult worms
        • Live in Hepatic Portal Vein
          • Blood vessels surrounding bladder
      • Acute infection- RARE
      • Eggs- deposited in blood vessels and produce acute inflammation- to tissue damage
        • Vascular wall ruptures
          • Go to intestinal mucosa and lumen
            • comes out as faeces
      • S.Mansoni
        • Eggs don't go out and carried to the liver
          • cause inflammation and granuloma
        • Chronic phase of the diseas
          • Hepatosplenomegaly
            • Egg Granuloma- replaced by fibrosis
              • Occlusion of HPV
    • Lympatic Filariasis
      • Filiaril worms
      • Transmitted my Mosquitos
      • Adult worms live in the afferent lymph nodes
        • Produce larvae
      • Acute disease
        • Lymphadenitis
          • Groin
          • Armpit region
      • Adult worms0 accumulate in the lymph obstruct lymph flow
        • Lymphoedema
          • Elephantitis
            • Breast
            • Limbs
            • Scrotum
    • Amoebiasis
      • caused by Entomoaebahystolytica
      • Lives in the gut
      • Invade liver- liver abscess
      • Transmission- cysts in faeces
      • Severe- Bloody, diarrhoea and severe liver abscess- causes death
    • Malaria
      • Caused by PlasmodiumSpecies
      • Mainly children under 5
      • Transmitted- female mosquito
      • associated with erythrocytic stage of parasites
      • Erythrocyte bursts- Malaria antiegns are  released- Rise to fever and chills
      • Cerebral- most dangerous as it can block the capillaries
    • Toxoplasmosis
      • Between cats and warm blooded animals
      • prevalence varies from place to place
      • Transmitted to humans
        • Ingestion of cysts fromm cat faeces
        • Ingestion of cysts in uncooked meat
        • Transplacentally
      • In cats- lives in intestine
      • affect- Nucleated cell type and muscle cells
      • Intact cysts can remain for life without causing harm
      • Reactivation of parasites occur in immune compromised hosts
      • AiDS patients- could get encephaliltis and death
      • Can be congenital
    • Giardiasis
      • parasitic flagellate protist
      • transmission-cysts in the faeces
      • Contaminate food or drinkingwater
      • Asymptomatic
      • Results-chronicdiarrhoea, flatulence, or maladsorption
    • Trichomoniasis
      • Parasitic flagellae
      • Lives inhe GI tract
      • Transmitted- sexual transmit
      • Non-lite threatening
      • Inc risk of transmission of HIV
      • Premature birth weight

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