P1b

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  • P1b
    • renewable energy
      • solar cells = free energy source, no emissions // unreliable, high initial costs, not very efficient
      • pumped storage
        • at night big power stations make more than they need, spare elect. is used to pump water from reservoirs up to a higher level, water stores energy til needed, water allowed to flow downhill at peak times, powering turbines etc
      • hydroelectric power
        • no atmospheric pollution, building the dam is expensive, valleys has to be cut into, rare for reservoirs to dry out, renewable, not contribution to global warming, high initial costs, destructs habitats
      • tidal barrage = tide comes in, water flows through turbines and builds up behind barrage,when tide goes out water is allowed out at a controlled speed through turbines
        • reliable and uk has a long coastline
      • wave power - wave moves water upwards, moving air makes turbine spin etc, water moves down, air sucked down and so on
      • geothermal = volcanic areas, hot water and steam rise to surface which can drive turbines
      • biofuels = renewable as new sources can always be made
    • decommission = shutting down/ removing from active status
    • nuclear = reliable, no greenhouse gases
    • supply = amount generated and delivered, demand= amount needed by consumers
      • high demand is a problem for the national grid
        • build more plants, power output of plants increased
    • refraction = the changing of direction of a wave when it hits the boundary of another medium
      • light doesn't diffract around a doorway as the gap is too wide
    • mobile phones used regardless of health risk for convenience and enjoyment
    • camera = lens focuses light onto a light sensitive film
    • delay before echo heard= echoed sound has to travel further
    • Origin of universe
      • universe started as a single point that exploded in a big bang and has been expanding ever since
      • CMBR - low freq EM radiation coming from all parts of the universe
        • big bang = high freq high energy radiation, became lower of both as the universe cooled

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