Physics P1 Unit 1

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  • Created on: 07-06-16 15:36
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  • P1 Unit 1  Energy transfer by heating
    • 1.2 Surfaces and radiation
      • Light, shiny surfaces absorb less radiation than dark, matt surfaces
      • Light, shiny surfaces reflect more infrared radiation than dark matt surfaces
    • 1.3 States of matter
      • Solid particles are held next to each other in fixed positions
        • Have a fixed shape
      • Liquid particles move at random but are in contact with eachother
        • Takes shape of a container that it is in and can flow
      • Gas particles move about randomly and are much further apart
        • No fixed volume
    • 1.4 Conduction
      • Metals conduct energy better than non-metals
      • Metals contain free electrons
        • Electrons move about at random inside a metal and hold the positive ions together
          • Ions - an atom or molecule with an electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
        • When a metal is heated electrons spread out and collide with free electrons and ions in the cooler parts of the metal
          • As a result, the electrons transfer kinetic energy to these electrons and ions
      • In non-metals, the electrons are held in the atoms
        • Energy only occurs when atoms vibrate and shake each other. That's why non-metals are good conductors
    • 1.5 Convection
      • Circulation of a gas or fluid caused by heating it
        • Heat makes liquid or gas less dense which causes circulation
    • 1.6 Evaporation and condensation
      • Evaporation is when a liquid turns to gas
        • Faster moving molecules are escaping from the liquid
        • Evaporation can be increased by increasing the surface area of the liquid and increasing it's temperature
      • Condensation is when gas turns into a liquid
        • Condensation can be increased the area of the surface or reducing the temperature of the surface
    • 1.7 Energy transfer by design
      • The rate of energy transferred to or from an object depends on:
        • The materials that the object is in contact with
        • The temperature difference between the object and its surroundings
    • 1.8 Specific heat capacity
      • Change of temperature: E =  m × c × theta
      • c = E ÷ m × theta
      • The greater the mass of an object, the more slowly its temperature increases when heated
      • Rate of temperature change of a substance depends on:
        • Energy supplied to it
        • Its mass
        • Its specific heat capacity
    • 1.9  Heating and insulating buildings
      • U-values tell us how much energy per second passes through different materials
      • Energy transfer from our homes can be reduced by fitting:
        • Loft insulation
        • Cavity wall insulation
        • Double glazing
        • Draught proofing
        • Aluminium foil behind radiators


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