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O'LEVEL PHYSICS
CONTENT

1 General Physics .............................................................................................................................................. 6

1.1 Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement ........................................................................................... 6

Scalars and Vectors ................................................................................................................................... 6

Measurement Techniques ......................................................................................................................... 6

Measurement of Time............................................................................................................................... 7

2 Mechanics and Properties of Matter .............................................................................................................. 8

2.2 Kinematics .............................................................................................................................................. 9

Speed, Velocity and acceleration .............................................................................................................. 9

Free-fall .................................................................................................................................................... 9…

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Elastic Deformation ................................................................................................................................ 20

2.7 Pressure ................................................................................................................................................ 22

Pressure .................................................................................................................................................. 22

Pressure Changes ................................................................................................................................... 22

Hydraulic Systems .................................................................................................................................. 23

Pressure in Gases .................................................................................................................................... 24

3 Energy and Thermal Physics ........................................................................................................................ 25

3.8 Energy Sources and Transfer of Energy ................................................................................................. 25

Energy Forms ......................................................................................................................................... 25

Major Sources of Energy ......................................................................................................................... 26…

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States of matter ...................................................................................................................................... 39

Molecular Model ..................................................................................................................................... 39

Evaporation ............................................................................................................................................ 41

4. Waves ......................................................................................................................................................... 43

4.13 General Wave Properties ..................................................................................................................... 43

Describing Wave Motion ......................................................................................................................... 43

Wave Terms ............................................................................................................................................ 44

Wave Behaviour ...................................................................................................................................... 44

4.14 Light ................................................................................................................................................... 46

Reflection of Light .................................................................................................................................. 46

Refraction of light ................................................................................................................................... 47

Total…

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5.19 Current Electricity ............................................................................................................................... 68

Current ................................................................................................................................................... 68

Electromotive Force................................................................................................................................ 68

Potential Difference ................................................................................................................................ 69

Resistance .............................................................................................................................................. 69

5.20 D.C. Circuits ........................................................................................................................................ 72

Current and Potential Difference in Curcuits ........................................................................................... 72

Series and Parallel Circuits ...................................................................................................................... 72

5.21 Practical Electricity .............................................................................................................................. 74

Dangers of Electricity .............................................................................................................................. 74

Safe use of…

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2.27 The Nuclear Atom ............................................................................................................................... 94

The Atomic Model .................................................................................................................................. 94

The Nucleus ............................................................................................................................................ 94

Nuclear Reactions ................................................................................................................................... 95

Nuclear Energy ....................................................................................................................................... 95




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1 GENERAL PHYSICS

1.1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS AND MEASUREMENT




SCALARS AND VECTORS

Scalar quantities are physical quantities which only possess a magnitude (size). A vector is a
physical quantity with a magnitude and a direction.

Scalars Vectors
Mass Displacement
Time Velocity
Distance Acceleration
Speed Force
Volume
Density
Work
Energy
Power…

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106 Mega M
103 Kilo K
10-1 Deci d
10-2 Centi c
10-3 Milli m
10-6 Micro µ



The SI unit for length is the metre, and length can be measured in several ways:

Length Instrument Accuracy of measurement
Several metres Measuring tape 0.1 cm
Several centimetres Metre or half-metre…

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Due to different tome intervals that we wish to measure, we need different types of clocks
and watches. Watches and pendulum clocks can be used to measure long intervals of time,
and stopwatches and ticker tapes measure short intervals of time.

Clocks are based on a regular event or process…

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2.2 KINEMATICS




SPEED, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION



Distance Total length covered by a moving object, Metres, m
irrespective of direction
Displacement Distance measured in a straight line, and Meters, m and direction
specified direction
Speed Distance moved per unit time Metres per second, m/s
Velocity Rate of change of displacement Metres…

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2. The velocity of the object continues to increase but with a smaller
acceleration;
3. The velocity of the paper does not increase anymore but remains at a
constant = terminal velocity reached, and acceleration is zero.




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Hejal

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you saved my life these are he perfect revision notes 

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