O'Level Physics Revision Notes

Equivalent Levels: IGCSE, CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL1/LEVEL2.

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  • Created on: 30-09-13 08:26
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O'LEVEL PHYSICS
CONTENT
1 General Physics .............................................................................................................................................. 6
1.1 Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement ........................................................................................... 6
Scalars and Vectors ................................................................................................................................... 6
Measurement Techniques ......................................................................................................................... 6
Measurement of Time............................................................................................................................... 7
2 Mechanics and Properties of Matter .............................................................................................................. 8
2.2 Kinematics .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Speed, Velocity and acceleration .............................................................................................................. 9
Free-fall .................................................................................................................................................... 9
2.3 Dynamics ...............................................................................................................................................11
The nature of a force ................................................................................................................................11
Balanced and unbalanced forces ..............................................................................................................11
Friction ................................................................................................................................................... 12
Circular Motion ........................................................................................................................................13
The effects of forces on motion .............................................................................................................. 14
2.4 Mass, weight and density ...................................................................................................................... 15
Mass and weight ..................................................................................................................................... 15
Gravitational Field Strength .................................................................................................................... 15
Density ................................................................................................................................................... 16
2.5 Turning effects of forces ........................................................................................................................ 17
Moments ................................................................................................................................................. 17
Centre of gravity ..................................................................................................................................... 18
Stability .................................................................................................................................................. 18
2.6 Deformation ......................................................................................................................................... 20
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Elastic Deformation ................................................................................................................................ 20
2.7 Pressure ................................................................................................................................................ 22
Pressure .................................................................................................................................................. 22
Pressure Changes ................................................................................................................................... 22
Hydraulic Systems .................................................................................................................................. 23
Pressure in Gases .................................................................................................................................... 24
3 Energy and Thermal Physics ........................................................................................................................ 25
3.8 Energy Sources and Transfer of Energy ................................................................................................. 25
Energy Forms ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Major Sources of Energy ......................................................................................................................... 26
Nuclear Reactions ................................................................................................................................... 28
Work ....................................................................................................................................................... 28
Efficiency ................................................................................................................................................ 29
Power ..................................................................................................................................................... 29
3.9 Transfer of Thermal Energy ................................................................................................................... 30
Conduction ............................................................................................................................................. 30
Convection ............................................................................................................................................. 30
Radiation .................................................................................................................................................31
Total Transfer ..........................................................................................................................................31
3.10 Temperature ........................................................................................................................................…read more

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States of matter ...................................................................................................................................... 39
Molecular Model ..................................................................................................................................... 39
Evaporation ............................................................................................................................................ 41
4. Waves ......................................................................................................................................................... 43
4.13 General Wave Properties ..................................................................................................................... 43
Describing Wave Motion ......................................................................................................................... 43
Wave Terms ............................................................................................................................................ 44
Wave Behaviour ...................................................................................................................................... 44
4.14 Light ................................................................................................................................................... 46
Reflection of Light .................................................................................................................................. 46
Refraction of light ................................................................................................................................... 47
Total internal reflection .......................................................................................................................... 48
Thin converging and diverging lenses ..................................................................................................... 50
4.15 Electromagnetic Spectrum .................................................................................................................. 52
Dispersion of Light .................................................................................................................................. 52
Properties of Electromagnetic Waves ..................................................................................................... 52
Applications of Electromagnetic Waves .................................................................................................. 53
4.…read more

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Current Electricity ............................................................................................................................... 68
Current ................................................................................................................................................... 68
Electromotive Force................................................................................................................................ 68
Potential Difference ................................................................................................................................ 69
Resistance .............................................................................................................................................. 69
5.20 D.C. Circuits ........................................................................................................................................ 72
Current and Potential Difference in Curcuits ........................................................................................... 72
Series and Parallel Circuits ...................................................................................................................... 72
5.21 Practical Electricity .............................................................................................................................. 74
Dangers of Electricity .............................................................................................................................. 74
Safe use of electricity at home ................................................................................................................ 74
5.22 Electromagnetism ................................................................................................................................ 77
Force on a curent-Currying Conductor ..................................................................................................... 77
The d.c. Motor ........................................................................................................................................ 79
5.23 Electromagnetic Induction .................................................................................................................. 81
Principles of Electromagnetic Induction .................................................................................................. 81
The A.C. Generator .................................................................................................................................…read more

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The Nuclear Atom ............................................................................................................................... 94
The Atomic Model .................................................................................................................................. 94
The Nucleus ............................................................................................................................................ 94
Nuclear Reactions ................................................................................................................................... 95
Nuclear Energy .......................................................................................................................................…read more

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GENERAL PHYSICS
1.1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS AND MEASUREMENT
SCALARS AND VECTORS
Scalar quantities are physical quantities which only possess a magnitude (size). A vector is a
physical quantity with a magnitude and a direction.…read more

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Mega M
103 Kilo K
10-1 Deci d
10-2 Centi c
10-3 Milli m
10-6 Micro µ
The SI unit for length is the metre, and length can be measured in several ways:
Length Instrument Accuracy of measurement
Several metres Measuring tape 0.1 cm
Several centimetres Metre or half-metre rule 0.1 cm
Between 1 cm and 10 cm Vernier calipers 0.01 cm (usually)
Less than 2 cm Micrometer screw gauge 0.01 mm (or 0.…read more

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Due to different tome intervals that we wish to measure, we need different types of clocks
and watches. Watches and pendulum clocks can be used to measure long intervals of time,
and stopwatches and ticker tapes measure short intervals of time.
Clocks are based on a regular event or process such as repetitive motion or vibration. Such
motions are called oscillations. The time taken to complete one oscillation is known as the
period of an oscillation.…read more

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KINEMATICS
SPEED, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
Distance Total length covered by a moving object, Metres, m
irrespective of direction
Displacement Distance measured in a straight line, and Meters, m and direction
specified direction
Speed Distance moved per unit time Metres per second, m/s
Velocity Rate of change of displacement Metres per second, m/s due
east
Acceleration Rate of change of velocity Metres per second per
second, ms2
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.…read more

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The velocity of the object continues to increase but with a smaller
acceleration;
3. The velocity of the paper does not increase anymore but remains at a
constant = terminal velocity reached, and acceleration is zero.…read more

Comments

Hejal

you saved my life these are he perfect revision notes 

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