Ownership and Control

  • Created by: brooke34
  • Created on: 03-05-19 14:38
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  • Ownership and Control
    • Marxist
      • ROLE OF IDEOLOGY = Marxists suggest that the capitalist class uses 'ideology'
        • -to make sure that the working class accept capitalism and do not threaten its stability.
        • the capitalist class uses its cultural power to dominate institutions such as the educationsystem, religion and the mass media.
        • 'superstructure' is to transmit ruling-class ideology - for example,to persuade people that capitalism is fair
      • FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS = plays role in keeping the W.C happy despite unfair system
      • MILLIBAND = say that role is to shape how people think about world - not informed about issues -"narrow" approved view
      • TUNSTALL AND PALMER = say gov have no interest in controlling media / papers owned by conglomerate to directly support.
    • Neo-Marxist
      • Hegemonic model - see ideology as natural, outcome of pursuit of economic interest, media professional shape BUT unconsciously make "culture" - reflects class position
      • ECONOMIC PRESSURES - journalists don't want to rock the boat for profit
        • CURRAN = says best journalist are only moderating influence their objectivity and impartial is undermined by not being immune from labour market. Journalist unemployment has increased
      • AGENDA  SETTING = media decides what issues should be talked about
        • Leads to public not seeing the workings of capitalism, people don't see real issue so can't decide how society should run  leads to cultural hagemony
      • PBS = BBC is losing aims to keep audience in commercial tv,
        • Pluralists - say it;s not an issue they have to offer choice to compete with
        • BARNETT - the pressures undermine quality of tv, aim for larger audience - say BBC have side lined education
    • Pluralist
      • Media owners exist in capitalist democracies therefore support this system
      • Media owners compete against each other in order to attract people to their product.
        • Readers, viewers and listeners are the real power-holders because they exercisethe right to buy or not to buy.
      • Concentration of ownership for financial not ideological reasons
      • Public Service Broadcasting PSB makes up a significant share of the media market (BBC and Channel 4) - but are these neutral
        • Provide quality programming  emphasis on giving access to the 'arts'(drama, opera, classical music)/  protect vulnerable such as news, documentaries, children's programming /  accurately and impartially report news/ educate audiences  make informed decisions about political issues/  ensure that programming is pluralistic and diverse,  caters for all  /protect consumers, children, from harmful material
        • Pluralists therefore see PBS as impartial and objective media and a counterweight to any potential bias .
      • The professionalism and integrity of journalists, editors and media workers
      • audiences are more active, selective and critical
      • MEDIA DIVERSITY - all interest groups, whether they are right-wing, centrist or left-wing, are given a platform to express their views
        • Any bias in the media is due to audience demand and real public concerns.
        • If women's magazines seem to focus disproportionately onfeatures about slimming, beauty, babies and weddings, it is because this is what the majority of women wantto read about.
      • vertical and horizontal integration, as well as synergy, also reduce costs becausemedia companies no longer have to contract services
      • Whale (1977), for example, argues that'media owners have global problems of trade and investment to occupy their minds' and so do not havethe time to think about the day-to-day detailed running of their media businesses or the everydaycontent of their newspapers or television programmes.
      • STATE CONTROLS = power of media owners is also restricted by state or government controls.
        • reduce the possibility that one person's or group's views or products become toodominant.
        • BBC and ITV have someformal legal requirements imposed upon them by a powerful regulator

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