Other organelles

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  • Other organelles
    • Mitochondria
      • Genes are transcribed and translated within the mitochondria
      • Contain their own DNA (mtDNA)
      • Outer and inner membranes, cristae and matrix
      • Site of aerobic respiration & ATP generation
      • mtDNA is smaller in eukaryotes than in plants
    • Chloroplasts
      • Contain chlorophyll which absorbs light
      • Have 3 membranes: porin, inter - membrane space and thylakoids
      • Light powers ATP synthesis
      • Contain their own DNA (cpDNA)
      • Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma
    • Vacuoles
      • Used for turgor pressure in plants (keeping cell rigid)
      • Used for storage and transport in animals
      • Can help maintain cytosolic pH
    • Lysosomes
      • Can be acid hydrolases e.g. nucleases
      • Can be heterophagic or autophagic
      • Peroxisome
        • Contain catalase
        • Generate and degrade H2O2
      • Acidic, and contain digestive enzymes
      • Only found in animal cells
    • Cytoskeleton/centrosome
      • Microfilament attach to the membrane and provide support
      • Centrosome is located near nucleus
      • Cytoskeletal fibres are polymerised from subunits
      • Centrosome forms mitotic spindle
      • Cytoskeleton provides internal support
      • Intermediate filaments support nucleus (lamins)
      • Important for cell movement and movement of vesicles (microtubles)

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