Opposition to the Tsarist System of Government

  • Created by: A. Person
  • Created on: 11-07-14 17:11
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  • Opposition to the Tsarist System
    • Reasons for Opposition
      • Long history of opposition
        • The 'People's Will' assassinated Alexander II in 1881
      • Growing middle class
        • Wanted constitutional government and political freedom
      • Peasants and workers wanted higher living standards
        • They had an 11.5 hour work day
        • Taxes had been raised by Witte
        • Terrible living conditions in cities
      • Certain groups supported the ideas of Karl Marx
    • Marxism
      • Marx argued that capitalism resulted in exploitation of workers
        • Eventually workers would rise up
          • Resulting in a communist society - fairer, no class struggle
            • Appealing to working-class Russians, due to accelerated industrialisation
    • Political Opposition Groups
      • The Social Democratic Party
        • Marxist
        • Established 1898
        • Failed to agree on party organisation or strategy
          • 1903: the party split into two groups
            • Bolsheviks
              • Led by Lenin
              • Believed that a revolution could only be brought about by a small, secretive, elite group of dedicated communist revolutionaries.
            • Mensheviks
              • Believed that a revolution should be carried out by a large party open to the whole working class
      • The Socialist Revolutionaries
        • Drew on some ideas of Marxism
        • Led by Victor Chernov
        • Focused on attracting support of peasants
        • Has no coherent long term plan or organisation
        • Used terrorism
          • Assassinated Plehve, Minister of the Interior
            • 1904
      • The Liberals
        • Industrialisation led to a growing middle class
          • Many supported liberalism
            • Wanted a Western European style deomocracy
            • Demands for a new political constitution
              • Ignored by Nicholas II before 1905
        • Rejected Marxism
        • Early 20th century
          • Liberal politicians more aggressive in their demands
            • Pavel Miliukov and Pyotr Struve
              • Demanded political freedoms, eg. press freedom
              • 1904
                • Struve organised public protests
        • 1905 (October Manifesto)
          • After 1905 revolution, liberals divided
            • Octobrists
              • No further significant demands for reform
            • Kadets
              • Wanted futher reforms after 1905


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