OCR 21st Century - B3

A mindmap based on Biology topic 3 - Life on Earth

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  • Created by: Holly
  • Created on: 12-05-13 16:20
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  • Biology -Life on Earth
    • Species - group of organisms that breed together
      • Adaptation
        • can increase the chance of surviving so they can reproduce
      • Food webs
        • interdependence of living
      • extinction
        • when environment changes, organisms are not adapted to it
        • new diseases
        • new predators
        • new competion
        • e.g. dodo bird
      • Sun
        • photosynthesis
        • energy transferred between organisms is an ecosystem
        • only 10% energy is passed to the next level
        • rest of the energy
          • decomposers
          • heat energy
          • excreted and passed to decomposers
        • calculate energy
          • 1. Calculate the total energy e.g. 4,500kJ + 500kJ = 5,000kJ
          • 2. Identify how much energy is transferred to the next level:500kJ
          • 3. (Energy transferred to next level ÷ Total energy in) X 100(500kJ ÷ 5,000kJ) X 100 = 10%
    • The Carbon Cycle
      • powered by photosynthesis
      • CO2
        • The combustion of fossil fuels releases CO2 in to the air
        • they decompose + broken down by microorganisms. Release CO2 back into the air by respiration by breaking down
          • The combustion of fossil fuels releases CO2 in to the air
          • plants/animals die + become decomposers
            • Both animal/plants respire releasing CO2
              • CO2
                • they decompose + broken down by microorganisms. Release CO2 back into the air by respiration by breaking down
                  • plants/animals die + become decomposers
                    • Both animal/plants respire releasing CO2
                      • Eating plants passes the carbon compounds in the plants to the animals in food chains
                        • Plants convert the carbon from CO2 in air to sugars. Then in to carbohydrates, fats and protein
                          • powered by photosynthesis
              • Eating plants passes the carbon compounds in the plants to the animals in food chains
                • Plants convert the carbon from CO2 in air to sugars. Then in to carbohydrates, fats and protein
      • The Nitrogen Cycle
        • Nitrates
          • Ammonia
            • Putrefying  bacteria
          • Soil nitrates
            • Absorbed
              • Plants
                • Feeding
                  • Animals
                    • Urea
                      • Putrefying  bacteria
                • Death
                  • Animals
                    • Urea
                    • Dead organisms
                      • Ammonia
                • Lightning
                  • Atmosphere
                    • Nitrogen fixing bacteria
                      • Made into protein
          • Theory of Evolution
            • living things existed 3,500 million years ago
            • Selective breeding
              • where we choose the characteristics
              • Farmers use selective breeding to increase milk yield in cattle, produce larger eggs from chickens and obtain more grain from wheat
            • Mutations - changes occur to the genes
            • Origin of life
              • Jean - Baptisite Lamarck
                • inheritance of acquired characteristics
                • theory predict that all organisms gradually become complex, and simple organisms disappear
          • The improtance of Biodiversity
            • Biodiversity  - a wide variety of life
            • Classifications
              • according to similarities + differences in characteristics
                • physical features
              • arranged in an order
                • a large group containing many organisms with a small number of characteristics in common, such as a kingdom
                • a small group containing fewer organisms with more characteristics in common, such as a species.
            • Monoculture
              • continuous production of one type of crop that is often genetically uniform
              • disadvantage: If pests + disease attacked the crop it could harm it easily, so farmers use  pesticides. .

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