Nazi Germany

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  • Nazi Germany
    • Establishing a One-Party State
      • Along with  intimidation at polling booths helped Nazi's win 43.9% of vote and 288 seats. NOT MAJORITY!
      • Once Hitler was made Chancellor used radio to spread party propaganda.
      • Reichstag fire in Feb 1933 led to ban of KPD.
      • March 23 1933 the Enabling act was passed which gave Hitler the power rule by decree for 4 years.
        • With KPD banned and SA intimidation only SPD deputies voted against the act, 441 votes to 94.
      • Trade Unions dissolved in May 1920, replaced by German Workers Front (controlled workers instead of representing them).
      • SPD banned June 1933, DNVP dissolved itself June 1933.
        • July, law passed preventing the establishment of any new parties.
      • Armed forces:
        • Night of the Long Knives: (30 June-2 July 1934) carried out by SS troops  with Georing in control. Rohm and 200 others arrested and shot.
          • Hitler now had support of army and gained control of SA.
        • Army detested SA.
      • Hindenburg died Aug 1934, Hitler combined Chancellor and President=Fuhrer. Army swore oath of loyalty.
    • Intolerance
      • Youth Organisations
        • Aims: Turn young into loyal Nazi's. Prepare best of the children for leaderships.
        • Methods: Nazi Youth formed after 1933, young children encouraged to join.
          • Used control over teachers to influence what children learn't at school.
      • Anti-semitism
        • Origins
          • Origins not clear.
          • Blamed for defeat in WW1.
          • Took revenge on race of doctor who failed to save Hitlers mother.
        • 1937-8
          • 1937: Aryanisation of businesses began, involved forced sale of Jewish businesses at a reduced prices to Germans.
          • 1938: All Jewish property had to be registered, emigration encouraged. 250,000 left many stayed believing it would die down.
            • Many countries reluctant to take Jews as they were usually poor and unemployed due to Nazi policies.
          • Night of the Broken Glass 8-9 Nov 1938: a violent pogrom. In 15 hours 177 synagogues destroyed, 7,000 Jewish owned businesses looted and destroyed. 30,000 Jewish men sent to concentration camps.
        • 1935-6
          • Sept  1935: Nuremberg laws introduced - this banned sexual relations between Germans and Jews and banned marriages.
          • 1936 Berlin Olympics - meant anti-antisemitism had to be toned down and signs forbidding Jews from public facilities (parks and cafes).
        • 1933
          • Law of Restoration of the Professional Civil Service to exclude Jews from public employment. Not successful Hindenburg stepped in to protect Jews who fought in WW1 or Father/Son died in.
          • April- Boycott of all Jewish shops. Not successful, most shops shut for Jewish Sabbath.
      • Women
        • Methods: Propaganda,contraception and abortion made illegal, encouraged to stop smoking and to attend mother and home-craft classes, Financial rewards for charity. By 1936 birth rates rose by 30%.
        • Aims: Place was for home and family.
      • Asocials
        • The Work-Shy
          • Summer of 1938 11,000 beggars tramps and gypsies sent to concentration camps.
        • Homeless People
          • Mass arrests in 1933. Prevention Detention Decree (1937) showed that the liberty to roam free showed a mindset that rejected the need to put the state first.
        • Married Women
          • Women in work
            • increasingly forced from their jobs to take up role of wife and mother.
          • If married for 20 years and childless encouraged to divorce.
        • Homosexual men
          • Lesbians
            • Those who refused to accept the role of mother and wife were sent to Ravensbruck, and all female concentration camp.
          • 1936-39 30,000 homosexual men sentenced to death in German courts.
            • SA purged to remove homosexuals.
        • Alcoholics
          • 1933 Law permitting sterilisation of those with hereditary defects (one of these was chronic alcoholism.
        • Disabled people
          • T-4 program-72,000 disabled adults killed.
        • Criminals
          • 1939- Youth concentration camps. Juvenile offences had increased from 16,000 (1933) to 21,000 (1940).
        • Communism
          • SPD members
    • Rise to Power 1928-33
      • The attraction and strengths of the party
        • Supported by farmers and under-35's .
        • Sept 1930:  won 18.3% of vote and 107 seats.
        • SA disrupted meetings of SPD and KPD.
        • Gained support of Hungenburg who owned 500 newspapers and a Universal film corporation
          • Meant  Nazi message heard at a time of 23% unemployement and 63% full-time employment.
      • Failures of Democracy and role of elite
        • Von Papen lifted ban on SA-Stormtroopers v. Reichbanner. (99 killed in street fighting for 5 weeks).
        • Grand Coalition couldn't come to an agreeement in  how to solve problems of wall street crash (1931 5 major banks collapsed and 20,000 businesses bankrupt).
        • Army in favor of Hitler to protect Germany from Communism, used appointment of Hitler to Chancellor to control him.
        • Weimar failed to solve any of Germany's problems, and so turned to extrememists, this left Hindenburg no choice but to turn to Hitler.
      • July 1932 Nazi's become largest party, winning 37.3% of vote. NOT MAJORITY!
        • Sept 1932-lost 2 million votes and 34 seats. Mainly to do with refusal to join a coalition.
    • Ideology
      • Anti-Democratic.
      • Strong central govt.
      • Unite German speaking people.
      • Anti-Semitic.
      • Anti-Communist.
      • Protect German people by defeating inferior people and securing their land.
      • Volksgemeinschaft.
    • Fuhrer Myth
      • Ideology:
        • Democracyfailed, instead a strong leader was needed to be more decisive, one party state was more attractive.
        • Untitled
      • Role of Goebbels:
        • Hitler presented as Heir by great a Great German Statesman.
        • Developed by Goebbels propaganda ministry.
        • Nuremberg rallies occasions of mass worship, 500,000 listening to his words.
      • Hitler's previous successes:
        • Winning over Goebbels at Bomberg Conference in 1936.
        • Reinstatement as leader of NSDAP, being brought back after openly resigning showed his importance to the movement.
        • Overturning ToV and tamed unemployment.
      • Why was it created?
        • Felt he could act in ways in which the Weimar govt failed to do so to restore Germany, such as ToV.
        • Saw Hitler as a man apart from the rest due to his youthful energy.
        • German history and psychology of German people/
      • Loyalty of important organisations:
        • SS swore oath of loyalty to Hitler and after death of Hindenburg the army did.  Showed acceptance of Hitler as key leader of Germany.
  • Methods: Nazi Youth formed after 1933, young children encouraged to join.
    • Used control over teachers to influence what children learn't at school.

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