Music: AOS 2

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  • MUSIC: AOS 2 (shared music)
    • Voice and Accompaniment
      • Pop Ballad
        • Origin: Folk songs from Middle ages  in strophic form    Now: Elton John, Adele, The Beatles
        • Melody: Vocals   Acc:guitar, piano, drum kit (counter mel. string quartet)
        • Verse/Chorus structure Dynamics develop towards chorus
        • slow to moderate      tempo normally 4/4    homophonic texture
          • lento to adagio or andante
        • lyrics: love, regret, break up
        • Key words
          • melisma: singing a syllable over 2+ notes
          • Broken chords: notes of chord played after each other
          • Arco: Bowed string
          • Contrasting section between verse + chorus
      • Lieder (Romantic Song)
        • Origin: Germanic poems       Composers: Schubert, Schumann
        • Melody: vocals  Acc: Piano (reflect mood)
        • Structure: strophic (same each verse) and through composed (diff for each verse)
        • Lyrics (German): nature, love
        • dynamic variation to reflect mood
        • tonality: key changes, reflects the lyrics
        • Key Words
          • Call and Response: 2 diff phrases by diff musicians
          • Major tonality: happy key      Minor tonality: sad key
    • Music contrasting solo/group
      • Classical Concerto
        • 1750 to 1800 in Europe
        • Composers: Mozart, Hayden, Beethoven
        • Melody: soloist orchestral instrument     Acc: orchestra
        • Structure: fast, slow, fast
          • Baroque Concerto
            • 1600 to 1750 in Europe
            • Composers: Bach, Vivaldi, Handel
            • Melody: soloist      Acc: small orchestra, harpsichord
            • Texture: polyphonic or contrapuntal
            • Dynamics change suddenly,       based on diatonic scale
            • Lots of ornamentation (trills, turns, grace notes, mordents)
            • Key Words
              • contrapuntal: lots of individual melodies played at once
        • homophonic texture
        • gradual changes (cres. and dim.)
        • Key Words
          • virtuosic playing: showing off (ornaments eg trills)
            • Key Words
              • contrapuntal: lots of individual melodies played at once
          • Cadenza: soloist plays without orchestra
          • Q&A: soloist plays incomplete phrase completed by orchestra
          • Imitation: 1 instrument plays phrase, other repeats it
            • Key Words
              • Raga: scale
              • Drone: long sustained note
              • Tala: repeating rhythm of 6 to 16 beats
              • Improvisation: melody made up (using raga/tala as base)
      • Jazz
        • Earliy 1900s in USA
        • Artists: Louis Armstrong, Nina Simone, Miles Davis
        • Melody: trumpet, sax, clarinet, vocals or trombone   Acc:drums, D.Bass, guitar, piano
        • Chord Structure: 12 Bar blues
        • homophonic texture       Structure: precomposed 'head' and improv.
        • swing rhythm: long 1st note 2nd short
        • Key Words
          • Walking Bass: regular crotchets with close intervals
          • Stabs: staccato, accented notes by brass
          • syncipation: off beat
          • scat singing: nonsense syllables
          • comping: piano plays short chords
          • glissando: sliding from one note to other
      • Baroque Concerto
        • 1600 to 1750 in Europe
        • Composers: Bach, Vivaldi, Handel
        • Melody: soloist      Acc: small orchestra, harpsichord
        • Texture: polyphonic or contrapuntal
        • Dynamics change suddenly,       based on diatonic scale
        • Lots of ornamentation (trills, turns, grace notes, mordents)
    • Ensembles
      • Indian Classical
        • Artists: Ravi Shankar
        • Sitar: improv. around raga with set scale Tanpura/Tambura: plays drone acc  Tabla: pair of drums
        • Texture: homophonic
        • passed by oral tradition (not written) used for religious celebrations
          • Gamelan
            • Origin: Indonesia
            • Instruments
              • Bonang: pot like gongs on frame
              • Gambang: wooden xylophone like instrument
              • Kempul: set of hanging gongs
              • Kendang: 2 headed drum played by hand
              • Rebab: 2 stringed instrument played with bow
              • Suling: bamboo ringed flute
              • Saron: metallophones (metal xylo.)
            • based on slendro (5note) or pelog (7note) scales
            • texture: heterophonic
            • sttructure: each repeated cycle (gongan) ends with note on large gong
            • More layers/parts are introduced as music progresses
        • Key Words
          • Raga: scale
          • Drone: long sustained note
          • Tala: repeating rhythm of 6 to 16 beats
          • Improvisation: melody made up (using raga/tala as base)
      • Gamelan
        • Origin: Indonesia
        • Instruments
          • Bonang: pot like gongs on frame
          • Gambang: wooden xylophone like instrument
          • Kempul: set of hanging gongs
          • Kendang: 2 headed drum played by hand
          • Rebab: 2 stringed instrument played with bow
          • Suling: bamboo ringed flute
          • Saron: metallophones (metal xylo.)
        • based on slendro (5note) or pelog (7note) scales
        • texture: heterophonic
        • sttructure: each repeated cycle (gongan) ends with note on large gong
        • More layers/parts are introduced as music progresses
    • Large vocal ensembles
      • Great Choral Classics
        • Baroque, classical and romantic eras in europe
        • Composers: handel
        • Choir: soprano, alto, tenor, bass   Acc: full orchestra
        • Types
          • Oratorio: large piece for soloist, orchestra and choir (eg Handel's Messiah)
          • Mass:  based on latin text from Catholic communion service in 6 movements
        • Texture: monophonic, homophonic or polyphonic
      • African a capella
        • a cappella means without accomp.
        • Artists: Ladysmith Black Mambazo
        • vocals sing in close harmonies at parallel thirds
        • Use voice/body sounds: clicks, claps, stamps, yelps
        • timbre: soft and mellow
        • tonality: major, happy sounding
        • dyamic rises and falls
        • rhythm: syncopated, follow natural word rhythms
        • Key Words
          • Call and Response (2 diff phrases played by diff musicians)
          • timbre: tone sound or "colour" of music
  • Monophonic: parts sing the same melody together "one sound"
  • Homophonic: parts move together in harmony, melody and accompaniment
  • Polyphonic: each part sings an independent, different melody

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